Asian Journal of Physics Vol 32, Nos 9 – 12 (2023) 525-530

Theoretical investigation on impact ionization of argon gas-filled cavities

 Navin Kumar Sharma1, Ram Prakash Lamba2, Udit Narayan Pal2 and Y Choyal1
1School of Physics, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore-452 001, India
2CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani-333 031, India
Dedicated to Prof B N Basu

In this study, a theoretical analysis of electron beam impact ionization of argon-filled cavities has been carried out. A kinetic model has been developed to investigate the evolution of the different species of argon atoms and ions generated due to the energy deposition of the electron beam. The model includes a set of equations for neutral and charged species. Numerical analysis has been performed for the electron beam of energy 10 keV having different current densities. The typical evolution of densities of Ar, excited Ar, Ar+, excited Ar+, and Ar2+ has been presented at different gas pressures. It is found that most of the electron beam energy is deposited in the generation of Ar+ ions. Excitation states 4s(4P3/2) and 4s(4P1/2) of Ar+ ions are populated dominantly which can give extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in the range of 40-110 nm © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), Excimer, Conversion efficiency, Simulation.

Peer Review Information
Method: Single- anonymous; Screened for Plagiarism? Yes
Buy this Article in Print © Anita Publications. All rights reserve


  1. Bakshi V, EUV Sources for Lithography, SPIE Series, (San Francisco, CA), 2006; doi.10.1117/3.613774.
  2. Adjei D, Ayele M G, Wachulak P, Bartnik A, Wegrzynski T, Fiedorowicz H, Vyšín L, Wiechec A, Lekki J, Kwiatek W M, Pina L, Davídková M, Juha L, Development of a compact laser-produced plasma soft X-ray source for radiobiology experiments, Nucl Instruments Methods Phys Res Section B: Beam interact with Mater Atoms, 364(2015)27–32.
  3. Fiedorowicz H, Bartnik A, Jarocki R, Kostecki J, Krzywiński J, Mikołajczyk J, Rakowski R, Szczurek A, Szczurek M, Compact laser plasma EUV source based on a gas puff target for metrology applications, J Alloys Compd, 401(2005)99–103.
  4. Attwood D, Soft X-Rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation, (Cambridge University Press), 43, no 6, 1999.
  5. Jiang B, Feng C, Li C, Bai Z, Wan W, Xiang D, Gu Q, Wang K, Zhang Q, Huang D, Chen S, A synchrotron-based kilowatt-level radiation source for EUV lithography, Sci Rep, 12(2022)3325; doi. 10.1038/s41598-022-07323-z.
  6. Yang D K, Wang D, Huang Q, Song Y, Wu Y, Li W X, Wang Z-S, Tang X-H, Xu H-X, Liu S, Gui C-Q, The development of laser-produced plasma EUV light source, Chip, 1(2022)100019;
  7. Stamm U, Extreme ultraviolet light sources for use in semiconductor lithography—state of the art and future development, J Phys D:Appl Phys, 37(2004)3244; doi.10.1088/0022-3727/37/23/005.
  8. Banine V Y, Benschop J P H, Werij H G C, Comparison of extreme ultraviolet sources for lithography applications, Microelec Eng, 53(2000)681–684.
  9. Partlo W, Fomenkov I, Oliver R, Birx D, Development of an EUV (13.5 nm) light source employing a dense plasma focus in lithium vapor, Proc SPIE, 3997(2000);
  10. Klosner M A, Silfvast W T, Intense xenon capillary discharge extreme-ultraviolet source in the 10–16 nm-wavelength region, Opt Lett, 23(1998)1609–1611.
  11. Schriever G, Rahe M, Stamm U, Basting D, Khristoforov O, Vinokhodov A, Borisov V, Compact Z-pinch EUV source for photolithography, Proc SPIE, 4343(2001);
  12. Rosier O, Apetz R, Bergmann K, Jonkers J, Wester R, Neff W, Panker J, Frequency Scaling in a Hollow-Cathode-Triggered Pinch Plasma as Radiation Source in the Extreme Ultraviolet, IEEE Trans Plasma Sci, 32(2004)240–246.
  13. Bergmann K, Schriever G, Rosier O, Meuller M, Neff W, Lebert R, Highly repetitive, extreme-ultraviolet radiation source based on a gas-discharge plasma, Appl Opt, 38(1999)5413–5417.
  14. Cross A W, Yin H, He W, Ronald K, Phelps A D R, Pitchford L C, Generation and application of pseudospark- sourced electron beams, J Phys D: Appl Phys, 40(2007)1953–1956.
  15. Destler W W, Segalov Z, Rodgers J, Ramaswamy K, Reiser M, High power, high brightness electron beam generation in a pulse‐line driven pseudospark discharge, Appl Phys Lett, 62(1993)1739–1741.
  16. Jiang C, Kuthi A, Gundersen M A, Pseudospark electron beam as an excitation source for extreme ultraviolet generation, Appl Phys Lett, 87(2005)131501;
  17. Bowes D, Yin H, He W, Zhang L, Cross A W, Ronald K, Phelps A D R, Chen D, Zhang P, Chen X, Li D, X-ray emission as a diagnostic from pseudospark-sourced electron beams, Nucl Instruments Methods Phys Res Section B: Beam interact with Mater Atoms, 335(2014)74–77.
  18. Shu G X, Yin H, Zhang L, Zhao J P, Liu G, Phelps ADR, Cross A W, He W, Demonstration of a planar W-Band, kW-level extended interaction oscillator based on a pseudospark-sourced sheet electron beam, IEEE Elec Dev Lett, 39(2018)432–435.
  19. Peterson L R, Allen J E, Electron impact cross sections for argon, J Chem Phys, 56(1972)6068–6076.
  20. Bretagne J, Callede G, Legentil M, Puech V, Relativistic electron-beam-produced plasmas. II. Energy apportionment and plasma formation, J Phys D: Appl Phys, 19(1986)779–793.
  21. Petrov G M, Giuliani J L, Dasgupta A, Electron energy deposition in an electron-beam pumped KrF amplifier: Impact of beam power and energy, J Appl Phys, 91(2002)2662–2677.
  22. McGarrah D B, Brake M L, Argon ion excitation by relativistic electrons: II. Chemical kinetics, Laser Part Beams, 8(1990)507–520.
  23. Lock E H, Petrova Tz B, Petrov G M, Boris D R, Walton S G, Electron beam-generated Ar/N2 plasmas: The effect of nitrogen addition on the brightest argon emission lines, Phys Plasmas, 23(2016)043518;org/10.1063/1.4946880.
  24. Ajellot J M, James G K, Franklin B, Howell S, Study of electron impact excitation of argon in the extreme ultraviolet: emission cross section of resonance lines of Ar I, Ar II, J Phys B: At Mol Opt Phys, 23(1990)4355–4376.
  25. Lock E H, Fernsler R F, Slinker S P, Singer I L, Walton S G, Global model for plasmas generated by electron beams in low-pressure nitrogen, J Phys D: Appl Phys, 47(2014)425206; doi.10.1088/0022-3727/47/42/425206.
  26. Bretagne J, Godart J, Puech V, Kinetic study of electron beam excited argon, Beitr Plasmaphys, 28(1983)295–312.