An International Peer Reviewed Research Journal
Frequency : Monthly,
ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Editor-In-Chief (Hon.) :
Dr. V.K. Rastogi
e-mail:[email protected]
[email protected]

AJP ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Vol 23, No. 1 & 2, January – June, 2014


Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 1-3

A Very Strange Tea


Philip J Wyatt

Wyatt Technology Corporation Santa Barbara, CA 93110, USA

Ref : 8

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 5-15

 Memories of Julian Schwinger


Edward Gerjuoy

*University of Pittsburgh Department of Physics and Astronomy,
Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA

The career and accomplishments of Julian Schwinger, who shared the Nobel Prize for physics in 1965, have been reviewed in numerous books and articles. For this reason these Memories, which seek to convey a sense of Schwinger’s remarkable talents as a physicist, concentrate primarily (though not entirely) on heretofore unpublished pertinent recollections of the youthful Schwinger by this writer, who first encountered Schwinger in 1934 when they both were undergraduates at the City College of New York. © Anita Publications. All rights are reserved.

Total Ref : 35

Memories of Julian Schwinger.pdf


Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 17-26

Ralph A Alpher, George Antonovich Gamow, and the Prediction of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation


Victor S Alpher

Austin, Texas, USA

The first prediction of the existence of “relict radiation” or radiation remaining from the “Big Bang” was made in 1948. This derived from the seminal dissertation work of Ralph A. Alpher. He was a doctoral student of George A. Gamow and developed several critical advances in cosmology in late 1946, 1947, and 1948. Alpher developed the ideas of “hot” big bang cosmology to a high degree of physical precision, and was the first to present the idea that radiation, not matter, predominated the early universal adiabatic expansion first suggested by A. Friedmann in the early 1920s. Alpher & Herman predicted the residual relict black-body temperature in 1948 and 1949 at around 5 K. However, to this day, this prediction, and other seminal ideas in big bang cosmology, have often been attributed erroneously to the better-known George A. Gamow. This article reviews some of the more egregious and even farcical errors in the scholarly literature about Ralph A. Alpher and his place in the history of big bang cosmology. Two such errors are that (a) Alpher was a fictive person; or (b) that like the French mathematician Nicolas Bourbaki, Alpher was as “conglomerate” of theoreticians.©Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 27-42

Chandrasekhara Venkatraman (C V Raman) and the Light Scattering Effect He discovered


Anant Krishna Ramdas and Aiyasami Jayaraman

Lark-Horovitz Distinguished Professor, Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA

Retired Scientist of Bell Laboratories, 15906 Lahinch Circle, Odessa, Florida 33556, USA

In this article we present a brief life history and scientific work of C V Raman, his discovery of the Light Scattering Effect on February 28, 1928, that goes by the name Raman Effect, and his getting the Nobel Prize for physics in 1930 for it. He was the first Asian to receive this prize. Raman created many scientific Institutions and trained generations of students in his Laboratory, both in Calcutta and Bangalore. He was a charismatic scientist of India and a superb Spokesman for science. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total Refs 21

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 43-46

A Significant Discovery in Nuclear Physics


Dwarka Bose

Former Professor, Indian Institute of Science and Professor and Dean, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur.

Presently Honorary Visiting Professor, St Xavier’s College, Kolkata, India

The thirties and forties of the last century saw a flurry of activity and major discoveries in nuclear physics. Although the centre of such research was mainly Europe, there were  isolated instances of inspired individuals who made significant contributions. Shyamadas Chatterjee, better known as S.D. Chatterjee, was one such individual working on his own in Calcutta (now Kolkata), India who discovered spontneous fission of Uranium and determined the half-life almost at the same time as Flerov and Petrzhak in the USSR. This article relates the social context of this discovery together with his other contributions such as setting up one of the first cloud chambers in India and his discovery of  Helium in hot springs in West Bengal. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total Refs : 3

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 47-54

Physics at Fisk University


Nelson Fuson1 and Ronald E Mickens2*

1Department of Physics, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA

                2Department of Physics Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314, USA

Our goal is to provide a summary of the major physics related activities at Fisk University. Almost from its genesis in 1929, the Physics Department has provided a venue for the performance of internationally recognized research in several areas of the molecular and material sciences. What is remarkable about these achievements is that they took place at a university started for freed slaves at the end of the American Civil War (1860-1864), and for which most of its existence as an institute of higher learning, the total student population was less than a thousand individuals.© Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fisk University, Physics Department, Infrared Spectroscopy Research Laboratory, R&D 100 Awards.

Total Refs : 8

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 55-80

Dennis Sciama and the Steady State Universe


J Christopher Hunt

Department of Physical Sciences and Engineering Prince George’s Community College

301 Largo Road, Largo, MD 20774-2199, USA

Dennis Sciama (1926-1999) was a long-standing advocate of the steady state cosmology, proposed in 1948. This essay explores Sciama’s reasons for adopting the theory, his original contributions to it, his defenses of it, and finally his rejection of it in 1966. Contrary to the image of a scientist as a detached investigator, Sciama fervently hoped the steady state model to be correct, and was significantly motivated by factors often considered to be “extrascientific.” Also, in contrast to the naïve falsificationism usually presented as a virtue of the scientific method, Sciama went through a several-year period of attempting to “save” the model from hostile data. Simultaneously, Sciama’s ultimate abandonment of the theory also stands as a counterexample to irrationalist criticisms of science, such as the Duhem-Quine Thesis and Planck’s Principle. Sciama’s conversion also sheds light on the iterative process that scientists use to attempt to repair faults in their theories.© Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total Refs : 91

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 81-90

The Scientific Impact of Einstein’s visit to Argentina, in 1925


Alejandro Gangui1 and Eduardo L Ortiz2

1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, Conicet and University of Buenos Aires,
CC 67, Suc 28, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina

2Imperial College, London, South Kensington campus, London SW7 2AZ, England

The arrival of Albert Einstein in Argentina in 1925 had an impact, equally relevant, on the scientific community and on the general public. In this paper we discuss that visit from three different perspectives. Firstly, we consider the conditions that allowed for such visit to be possible. Then we focus on the institutional actors that facilitated it, as well as on the expertise and written references on topics related to relativity theory circulating at the time in the local community. In the last section we consider the implications of that visit for the local scientific environment. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total Refs : 23

The Scientific Impact of Einstein’s visit to Argentina, in 1925.pdf


 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 91-100

Anybody But Hubble!


Virginia Trimble

Department of Physics and Astronomy

University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575, USA

The recent literature of history of astronomy and cosmology has included a good many suggestions for “who first recognized the expansion of the universe?” with cases having been made for Lemaître, Lundmark, de Sitter, Slipher, Shapley, Friedmann, Wirtz and perhaps others. I will touch on these but also mention others (some of whose names have not come down to us) who might reasonably be credited © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Anybody But Hubble.pdf


 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 101-106

Albert Michelson, the Michelson-Morley experiment, and the dichotomy between megaprojects and table-top science


Philip L Taylor

Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079, USA

During the past 130 years the range of sizes and costs for scientific apparatus has expanded enormously. While some groundbreaking science is still done at modest cost, other experiments now require several billions of dollars to achieve their goals. A description of some significant milestones in the career of Albert Abraham Michelson illustrates how in this one individual’s life this divergence may have had its first exemplar, as his vision expanded beyond the exquisitely precise interferometer used in the Michelson-Morley experiment to the mile-long vacuum tube used in his later measurements of the speed of light. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total Refs : 18

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 107-112

On the determination of stellar masses


 Alan H Batten

2594 Sinclair Rd, Victoria, BC, Canada, V8N 1B9

A brief account is given of the history of our increasing and improving knowledge of the masses of stars. The basis of this knowledge is the study of binary systems, whose existence was first recognized early in the nineteenth century. The earliest determinations of mass were few in number and poor in quality, but we now know the masses of a wide range of stars on the main sequence to within a few per cent. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: stellar masses, binary systems.


  Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 113-114

A Note on the Philosophical Treatment of Optical Instruments: The Telescope versus the Microscope


 Thomas Hockey

University of Northern Iowa

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 115-138

From the dawn of nuclear physics to the first atomic bombs


Stephen J Woolbright, Jacob P Schumacher, and Ekaterina I Michonova-Alexova

Erskine College, 2 Washington Street, Due West, South Carolina 29639-0338, USA

This review gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission withinthe historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. We hope that this work, referring to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners, will be inspirational and will stimulate interest in the history of physics not only in physicists but in other readers of all backgrounds, genders, and generations. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total refs : 77

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 139-144

A mixture of ancient and modern understanding concerning the distance and motion of the moon


Kevin Krisciunas

George P and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A & M University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843, USA

Ptolemy’s model of the Moon’s motion implied that its distance varies by nearly a factor of two, implying that its angular size should also vary by nearly a factor of two. We present an analysis of 100 naked eye observations of the Moon’s angular size obtained over 1145 days, showing regular variations of at least 3 arc minutes. Thus, ancient astronomers could have shown that a key implication of Ptolemy’s model was wrong. In modern times we attribute the variation of distance of the Moon to the combined effect of the eccentricity of the Moon’s orbit and the pertur-bing effect of the Sun on the Earth-Moon system. We show graphically how this affects the ecliptic longitudes and radial distance of the Moon. The longitude and distance “anomalies” are correlated with the Moon’s phase. This is illustrated without any complex equations or geometry. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total Refs : 9

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 145-170

Early Astronomical Tests of General Relativity: the gravitational deflection of light


Keith John Treschman

51 Granville Street Wilston 4051 Australia 61-7-38562262

One of three astronomical tests of the general relativity theory of Einstein was the gravitational deflection of light. The British total solar eclipse of 1919 is lauded in history as having decided the case in favour of Einstein. This conclusion is questioned in the light of the philosophy of Science and the method employed to analyse the results. The case is put that more emphasis ought be placed on the outcome of the 1922 total solar eclipse in Australia where eight parties attempted measurements of light deflection in the vicinity of the Sun. Importance is attached to Campbell of the Lick Observatory, camped at Western Australia. His results were not completed until 1928. Other leaders, their affiliation and place of observation were Spencer Jones of the Royal Greenwich Observatory on Christmas Island, Freundlich for a German-Dutch expedition to Christmas Island, Evershed of the Kodaikanal Observatory in India also set up inWestern Australia, Chant of the University of Toronto measuring at Western Australia, Dodwell of the Adelaide Observatory in a remote part of South Australia and Cooke from the Sydney Observatory and Baldwin of the Melbourne Observatory both in Queensland. ©Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total Refs : 106

Early Astronomical Tests of General Relativity: the gravitational deflection of light.pdf


 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 171-188

Early Astronomical Tests of General Relativity: The anomalous advance in the perihelion of Mercury and gravitational redshift


 Keith John Treschman

 51 Granville Street Wilston 4051 Australia 61-7-38562262

There were three astronomical tests of general relativity. Besides the gravitational bending of light, there werethe anomalous advance of the perihelion of Mercury and gravitational redshift. The early history of these latter two tests is addressed here. For Mercury, data for its position were obtained principally from transit phenomena. Le Verrier was the first to account for the known perturbation effects on the elliptical orbit of Mercury and calculated an unexplained discrepancy. This was supported by Newcomb who revised the figure. With the use of his general theory of relativity, Einstein appeared to calculate this disagreement from Newtonian principles. Yet, other avenues needed to be explored before an acceptance of general relativity as a reasonable paradigm. This is part of a more general query of when should scientists endorse a theory.

For the test of the redshift of radiation in the presence of a gravitational field, support for this phenomenon followed a winding route. Many factors, which could contribute to the redshift of spectral lines needed to be nominated, and their individual contribution, if any, had to be teased from the rest. Very small measurements had to be effected. This situation received some respite when measurements moved from the Sun to large mass objects such as white dwarfs which theory suggested should have a much larger redshift. 1928 was taken as the year in which the results could be interpreted as support for general relativity. However, developments opened up subsequently and further confirmation has continued to the present day. The story is threaded with a theme that new ideas in science follow anything but a straightforward course and that real history is much more interesting. ©Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total Refs: 78

Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 189-208

Japanese studies of asteroids after the discovery of Hirayama families


Tsuko Nakamura

 Teikyo-Heisei University, Information Sciences Nakano 4-21-2, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8530, Japan

This paper reviews studies relating to asteroids conducted by Japanese researchers after the discovery of asteroid families by Kiyotsugu Hirayama in 1918. But the concept and importance of asteroid families were not immediately recognized by the international astronomical community. Thereafter, eminent researches on asteroid dynamics based on secular perturbation theories appeared in Japan after World War II, as represented by the Kozai mechanism (1962), influenced by Hirayama’s monumental discovery. A pioneering work on the physical properties of asteroids was published in 1959, but has not been pursued further. This study compared the colors of 42 asteroids with the reflectance spectra of several meteorites measured in the laboratory. Modern impact experiments initiated by Fujiwara in 1975 have soon grown into an important technique to investigate the origin of asteroid families and craters seen on the surfaces of airless celestial bodies. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, founded in Japan in 1981, has played a vital role in space exploration studies and planetary sciences using spacecraft. The unique achievements of Hayabusa, an asteroid sample return mission, remain as a highlight of asteroid studies. The physical properties of asteroids have been further elucidated by analyses of numerous Antarctic meteorites, chiefly discovered by Japanese Antarctic exploration teams from 1969 to 1980s. Finally, as a recent topic from telescopic observations of asteroids, we report results on the statistical nature of very small asteroids (< 1 km diameter) in the main asteroid belt-that had not been previously explored-. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total Refs : 78

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 209-220

Religiously motivated responses to the discovery of the asteroids : 1803-1853


Clifford J Cunningham

National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand

During the fifty-year span considered in this review, the first four asteroids – like a character actor who has been in many stage performances – played numerous roles. Variously applauded and booed by their theological audience, they achieved centre stage in the great drama of an exploding planet that supposedly existed between Mars and Jupiter. Singularly unable to offer an explanation as to how a planet could explode based on the principles of physics, they resorted to the same ploy used by ancient Greek dramatists to explain the unexplainable – the deux ex machina, or, in this case, the Christian God.  This paper, which focuses on English-language literature, is the first to explore this aspect of early nineteenth century asteroid studies. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total Refs : 25

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 221-232

Interferometry from Space: A Great Dream


Erik Høg

Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark

During some thirty years, 1980-2010, technical studies of optical interferometry from instruments in space were pursued as promising for higher spatial resolution and for higher astrometric accuracy. Nulling interferometry was studied for both high spatial resolution and high contrast. These studies were great dreams deserving further historical attention. ESA’s interest in interferometry began in the early 1980s. The studies of optical interferometry for the global astrometry mission GAIA began in 1993 and ended in 1998 when interferometry was dropped as unsuited for the purpose, and the Gaia mission to be launched in 2013 is not based on interferometry. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 233-240

Astrosociology: Interwiews about an infinite universe


Erik Høg

Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark

If the universe is infinite now it has always been infinite. This is the opinion of many astronomers today as can be concluded from the following series of interviews, but the opinions differ much more than I had expected. Many astronomers do not have a clear opinion on this matter. Others have a clear opinion, but very different from the majority. Detailed arguments by two experts on general relativity are also included. Observations show that the universe is flat, i.e. the curvature is zero within the small uncertainty of measurements. This implies an infinite universe, though most probably we will never know that for certain. For comparison with the recent interviews, opinions during the past 2300 years since Aristotle about the universe being finite or infinite have been collected from literature, and it appears that the scientists often had quite definite opinions. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total refs : 10

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 241-256

The quantum revolution and quantum chemistry


Sam Schweber1 and Gal Ben Porat2

1Department of Physics, Brandeis University and Department of the History of Science,Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States and

2Department of Physics, Tel Aviv University, Israel

The recent advances in the use of density functional theory (DFT) in quantum chemistry and in material sciences are considered from the perspective of the quantum theoretical description of the microscopic world. A view point is presented on how to think about the quantum revolution and how to fit the DFT developments into it. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total Refs : 36

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 257-264

On some debates about naming planets


 Ennio Badolati & Sandra Ciccone

 Università del Molise, Via de Sanctis 1,  86100 Campobasso, Italy

 Università del Molise, Via de Sanctis 1, 86100 Campobasso, Italy

 Vanity fair

 aThackeray’s novel

In this paper we examine some debates arisen among astronomers in giving names to Jupiter ‘s satellites, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Besides we examine some controversies tied to the names of some minor planets discovered in the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 265-286

The divergence between the historical and the logical developments of physics–Forgotten old insights can serve modern physics


 Peter Enders

 Senzig, Ahornallee 11, 15712 Koenigs Wusterhausen, Germany; [email protected]

Many textbooks and monographs sketch historical facets of the topics under discussion as a stimulating element. It serves for illustrative purposes and is presented in the spirit of the (questionable!) unity of the logical and historical developments of physics. This contribution points to (constructs of) ideas that have been discarded or forgotten, although their use would have disburdened the development of new areas, would have avoided long periods of confusion, or are even helpful for the understanding of modern physics. The examples reach from Huygens till Feynman and can be exploited for courses on classical, statistical and quantum mechanics, on electromagnetism and on transport and propagation. At once, the unity of physics is referred to not only at the methodological, but also at the practical level. Concrete steps are presented towards a unified representation of, (i), classical and special-relativistic mechanics, (ii), classical mechanics and electromagnetism, (iii), classical and quantum mechanics, (iv), classical and quantum statistical mechanics, (v), evolution processes. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total Refs : 106

 Vol. 23, No. 1 & 2 (2014) 287-292

Natural Selection and the Development of Science


Demetris Nicolaides

 Professor of Physics Natural Science and Mathematics

 Bloomfield College 467 Franklin St Bloomfield, NJ 07003, USA

What led to the intellectual transition from mythology to science in ancient Greece? The factors that are generally accepted as having created favorable conditions for such transition were geographic, economic, religious, and political. In this paper I add a new factor, the effect of making a habit of scientific thinking. This factor is really a consequence of the fact thatnatural selection in biologymay be imposed by a habit. Hence it can be argued that practicing science habitually imposed an epistemological kind of natural selection by promoting intellectually favorable environments where learning science could continue to happen and new scientists could exist, thrive, and become abundant, contributing therefore to the constant development of the scientific outlook at the expense of the mythological one. ©Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total Refs : 12