Asian Journal of Physics Vol 32, Nos 5 – 8 (2023) 291-302

Theoretical study of slanted holographic gratings for application in sensing

Graceson Antony1,2, Dervil Cody1,2, and Izabela Naydenova1
1Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics, FOCAS Research Institute, Technological University Dublin,
Camden Row, D08 CKP1 Dublin 8
2School of Physics, Clinical and Optometric Sciences, Technological University Dublin, Central Quad,
Grangegorman lower, D07 ADY7, Dublin, Ireland

Dedicated to Prof John Sheridan

Functionalized holographic gratings present a promising approach to the development of optical sensors. Volume phase transmission or reflection holographic gratings have been explored for the detection of chemical, biochemical, and biomedical analytes, as well as environmental parameters such as humidity, temperature, and pressure. Volume phase holographic gratings are characterized by a strong dependence of their diffraction efficiency on the angle of incidence of the probe beam. Maximum diffraction efficiency is observed at the Bragg angle; any detuning from the Bragg angle can cause a significant change in the efficiency of the gratings. The angular detuning is typically a result of the change in the average refractive index and/or the thickness of the layer in which the grating is recorded, both changes happening in the presence of the target analyte. In this work, we theoretically compare the sensitivity of unslanted and slanted volume transmission holographic gratings to angular detuning caused by the presence of the analyte. We demonstrate that slanted gratings are more sensitive to Bragg angle detuning caused by the target analyte. We also demonstrate that in the case of slanted gratings, the sensitivity depends on the choice of the probe beam, which in this case is incident at different angles to the grating and this must be considered when the sensor device is designed. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Holographic sensors, Volume phase transmission holograms, Slanted holographic gratings, Diffraction gratings.

Peer Review Information
Method: Single- anonymous; Screened for Plagiarism? Yes
Buy this Article in Print © Anita Publications. All rights reserve


  1. Naydenova I, Optical Holography: Materials, Theory and Applications; Blanche P A (Ed), (Elsevier), 2019.
  2. Yetisen A K, Naydenova I, Vasconcellos F D C, Blyth F, Lowe C R, Holographic Sensors: Three-Dimensional Analyte-Sensitive Nanostructures and Their Applications, Chem Rev, 114(2014)10654–10696.
  3. Zawadzka M, Mikulchyk T, Cody D, Martin S, Yetisen A K, Martinez-Hurtado J L, Butt H, Mihaylova E, Awala H, Mintova S, Yun S Y, Naydenova I, Photonic Materials for Holographic Sensing, In Photonic Materials for Sensing, Biosensing and Display Devices, (Springer), 2016, pp 315–359.
  4. Ahmed I, Elsherif M, Park S, Yetisen A K, Butt H, Nanostructured Photonic Hydrogels for Real-Time Alcohol Detection, ACS Appl Nano Mater, 5(2022)7744–7753.
  5. Branigan E, Martin S, Sheehan M, Murphy K, Modelling Spherical Aberration Detection in an Analog Holographic Wavefront Sensor, In Adaptive Optics and Applications; (Optica Publishing Group), 2022; paper OF2B-4.
  6. Davies S, Hu Y, Blyth J, Jiang N, Yetisen A K, Reusable Dual-Photopolymerized Holographic Glucose Sensors. Adv Funct Mater, 33(2023)2214197;
  7. Gul S E, Holographic Sensors for the Detection of Liquid Phase Analytes, Doctoral Thesis, Technological University Dublin. 2019, doi. 10.21427/14kz-5r43.
  8. Irfan M, Martin S, Naydenova I, Temperature-Sensitive Holograms with Switchable Memory, Adv Photonics Res, 2(2021)2100062;
  9. Mikulchyk T, Development of holographic sensors for monitoring relative humidity and temperature, Doctoral Thesis. Technological University, Dublin. 2016; doi:10.21427/D7HS3X
  10. Mora M P, Ramirez M G, Brocal F, Ortuño M, Beléndez A, Pascual I, Influence of Tert-Butylthiol and Tetrahydrofuran on the Holographic Characteristics of a Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal: A Research Line toward a Specific Sensor for Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas, Polymers, 11(2019)254;
  11. O’Neill F T, Lawrence J R Sheridan J T, Thickness Variation of Self-Processing Acrylamide-Based Photopolymer and Reflection Holography, Opt Eng, 40(2001)533–539.
  12. Sartain F K, Yang X, Lowe C R, Holographic Lactate Sensor, Anal Chem, 78(2006)5664–5670.
  13. Tan E V, Lowe C R, Holographic Enzyme Inhibition Assays for Drug Discovery, Anal Chem, , 81(2009)7579–7589.
  14. Yu D, Liu H, Mao D, Geng Y, Wang W, Sun L, Lv J, Holographic Humidity Response of Slanted Gratings in Moisture-Absorbing Acrylamide Photopolymer, Appl Opt, 54(2015)6804–6812.
  15. Cody D, Naydenova I, Theoretical Modeling and Design of Photonic Structures in Zeolite Nanocomposites for Gas Sensing. Part II: Volume Gratings, J Opt Soc Am A, 35 (2018)12–19.
  16. Kogelnik H, Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings, In Landmark Papers On Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics; (World Scientific), 1995, pp 133–171.