Editor-in-Chief : V.K. Rastogi
|AJP||ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Vol 15, Nos. 3&4, July-December, 2006
Vol. 15, Nos 3&4 (2006) 199-202
Stokes Interferometry- First Experimental Results
Denisenkoa ,Vladimir V Slyusara, Marat S Soskina and
aInstitute of Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 46 Prospekt Nauki, Kiev-39, 03650, Ukraine
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Vol. 15, Nos 3&4 (2006) 203-209
Seidel coefficients in optical testing
Determination of the Seidel aberration coefficients from Zernike aberration coefficients obtained in optical testing is discussed, and potential pitfalls in the determination process are explained. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Vol 15, Nos 3&4, (2006) 211-222
A k-space analysis of holographic particle image velocimetry
This paper introduces a new three-dimensional, k-space formulation of scalar wave propagation and describes its use in the analysis of Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV). In particular, it is shown that the three-dimensional autocorrelation of scattered fields can be calculated from measurements of the power in the propagating plane wave components. In addition it is shown that this method, which we refer to as Complex Correlation Analysis, is tolerant to phase aberrations introduced by windows or distortions introduced by the holographic recording process. A similar approach is used to analyse the Object Conjugate Reconstruction (OCR) technique to resolve directional ambiguity by introducing an artificial image shift to the reconstructed particle images. An example of how these methods are used together to measure the instantaneous flow fields within a motored Diesel engine is then described. Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Vol 15, Nos 3&4, (2006) 223-231
Adaptive reconfigurable optical interconnects
The next generation of applications for liquid crystal over silicon technolgy will be non-display oriented systems such as adaptive optical interconnects, optical switches and optical image processors. We have been developing these new applications both as reconfigurable optical interconnects (or switches) and adaptive optical interconnects. There is a growing need for optically transparent interconnects in both telecommunications networks as well as board to board and chip to chip systems and reconfigurable phase gratings or holograms offer a very exciting solution. Free space optical data transmission is becoming more and more important as the data rate in electronic systems increases into the GHz 7egion in order to avoid data bottlenecks. Past research into free-space optical links has shown that a high level of manufacturing tolerance must be used to maintain the link, however, one way of avoiding these limitation is to use a reconfigurable liquid crystal phase hologram as a beam steering element to compensate for movement between the boards and maintain the optical data path. In this paper we present recent results in utilising phase holograms to steer 5.-ee space optical beams in both a telecommunications switch and a board to board interconnect. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Vol 15, Nos 3&4, (2006) 233-242
Production and applications of single crystal optical fibres
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Vol 15, Nos 3&4, (2006) 243-251
Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for biological tissue imaging: A Review
Zhenhe Ma1, Jingying Jiang2, Qiang Gong1 and Ruikang K Wang1,3
1Institute of Laser and Optoelectronics, Tiajin University, Tianjin 300072, China
2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tiajin University, Tianjin 300072, China
3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health & Science University, Oregon 97006,USA
Optical coherence tomography(OCT) is a new imaging modality used to visualize the microstructures beneath tissue surface. It has been demonstrated that this technique provides images with micron resolution in a non-contact and noninvasive way. Traditional OCT is time domain OCT (TDOCT) which is characterized by its reference arm scanning. In recent years, a new approach of OCT based on Fourier domain interferometry is emerged, i.e Fourier domain OCT (FDOCT). FDOCT avoids scanning in the reference arm, thus makes high-speed acquisition possible. This paper reviews the State-of-the-Art of FDOCT. Following a discussion of the basic theory of FDOCT, different set-ups have been presented. Finally, some of the latest progress in FDOCT is listed.© Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Low-coherence optical interferometry methods, such as time domain OCT [1-8], are capable of providing high resolution, sub-surface depth profiling, and cross-sectional imaging with relatively simple optical arrangements and inexpensive light source. The technique is based on broadband or white-light interferometry. OCT is typically executed in the time domain (TDOCT) by use of a Michelson interferometer in which the optical path length in reference arm is rapidly scanned over a distance corresponding to the imaging depth. The mechanism of scanning largely limits the acquisition speed and makes real-time imaging difficult.
In recent years, a novel OCT system has been proposed by a number of groups that operates in the frequency domain, i.e. the Fourier domain OCT (FDOCT also called spectral OCT, SOCT) [9-20]. In FDOCT, a stationary interferometer is used, and the spectrally dispersed out-put of the interferometer ( i.e spectral interferogram) is recorded. The signal returning from the sample arm can be thought of as a superposition of monochromatic waves that interfere with the corresponding components in the reference arm. This interference leads to fringes on the spectrum. Depth information is encoded in the fringe frequencies which can be easily obtained by Fourier transformation of the spectral interferogram. The advantage of FDOCT lies in the fact that the depth information is obtained in parallel. This eliminates the need for reference arm scanning, and increases the stability and simplicity of the instrument. Fast acquisition speed is inherent in the parallel data acquisition.
FDOCT has been implemented in free-space optics [21,22] as well as in fiber optics [23,24]. Light sources with central wavelength around 800nm and 1.3μm are normally used in the FDOCT . Some novel devices were introduced into FDOCT system to improve its imaging quality [26,27]. Leitgeb et al compared performance of TDOCT and FDOCT in 2003 . Currently, the dynamic range of FDOCT can reach as high as 110 dB , and the measuring range upto 6 mm can be achieved. Moreover, with phase shifting method, the measuring range can expand by a factor of 2 . One of the most attracting features of FDOCT is its high speed acquisition.Through high-speed tunable lasers or high-speed line-scan cameras, some groups have realized the axial scan rate up to 15-30 kHz. Currently, FDOCT not only has been used to image transparent tissues, such as eyes [29,30], but also has been applied to measure nontransparent tissues .
This review summarizes the technological advances in Fourier domain OCT that have been made over the last decade. An overview of the technical issues involved in design of the main components of a FDOCT system is presented.
2 Principles of FDOCT
2.1 Basic principles of FDOCT
Vol 15, Nos 3&4 (2006)
Narrowband and ultranarrowband filters with electro-optic structrally chiral materials
CATMAS-Computational & Theoretical Materials Sciences Group
Department of Engineering Sciences & Mechanics
Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-6812, USA
when a circularly polarsed plane wave is normally incident on a slab of a structurally chiral material with local 42 m point group symmetry and a central twist defect, the slab can function as either a narrowband reflection hole filter for co-handed plane waves or an ultranarrowband transmission hole filter for cross-handed plane waves, depending on its thickness and the magnitude of the applied dc electric field. Exploitation of the Pockels effect significantly reduces the thickness of the slab. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Total Refs: 18
1. Jacobs SD (ed), Selected papers on liquid crystals for optics,(SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA,USA), 1992
16. Wang F, Lakhtakia A, Opt Express, 13(2005)7319.
17. Lakhtakia A, J Eur Opt Soc-Rapid Pub,1(2006)06006
Vol 15, Nos 3&4, (2006) 283-293
Counterpropagating beams in photorefractive crystals and optically induced photonic lattices
A comprehensive numerical study of counterpropagating incoherent beams in isotropic photorefractive crystals and optically induced photonic lattices in such crystals is carried out. A local model with saturable Kerr-like nonlinearity is adopted for the photorefractive media, with an optically generated two-dimensional photonic lattice written within the crystal. Different head-on incident beam structures are considered, such as Gaussians, dipoles, and vortices. We review some of our earlier work and present novel results on the dynamical behavior of counterpropagating beams in a finite hexagonal photonic lattice. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Total Refs : 20
Vol 15, Nos 3&4 (2006) 295-300
Laser tweezers using focused evanescent illumination
Smitha Kuriakose, Dru Morrish, Baohua Jin, Xiasong Gan, James W M Chon and Min Gu
Centre for Micro-Photonics, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences,
Swinburne University of Technology,PO Box 218, Hawthorn,VIC-3122 Australia
In this letter, we report on optical tweezers using near field illumination. The near field was generated using the geometry which we demonstrated earlier, employing the evanescent field generated by total internal reflection of a tightly focused beam at the interface between two media. The focused evanescent field was characterized using a scanning near field optical microscope (SNOM). The characteristics of the near field tweezers were studied experimentally and theoretically and good agreement was found. The near field tweezers as demonstrated here would be of great use especially in studying the biomolecules at a nanometric scale. © Anita Publications . All rights reserved.
Vol 15, Nos 3&4 (2006)
Microoptical elements for characterization of femtosecond laser pulses
Changhe Zhou, Enwen Dai and Shunquan Wang
Information Optics Lab, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics. Chinese Academy of Sciences
P O Box 800-211, Shanghai 201 800, P R China
This paper summarized our works on design and fabrication of the novel microoptical elements for femtosecond applications. We found the optimized condition of inductively coupled plasma equipment for etching fused silica gratings, so deep etched optical elements for high efficiency can be fabricated. We developed a two layered structure with the reflective Dammann gratings for splitting and measurement of the femtosecond laser pulses. The most attractive feature of this approach is that the conventional beam splitter is avoided. The conventional beam splitter would introduce the unequal dispersion due to the broadband spectrum of high-power ultrashort laser pulses. We implemented the Dammann FROG apparatus by using two-layered reflective Dammann gratings for measurements of the short pulses of 11.7 fs, the simple pulse of 77fs, and the complex pulses over 1000 fs. Excellent experiments are obtained with the small FROG errors. Novel microoptical elements are useful for developing new femtosecond information processing techniques. © Anita Publications . All rights reserved.
Total Refs: 22