Editor-in-Chief : V.K. Rastogi
|AJP||ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Vol 25, No 4 & 5, April-May, 2016
25th Anniversary Year of AJP-2016
Asian Journal of Physics
Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 501-510
Resolution enhancement in digital holographic microscopy and tomography system
Balasubramani Vinoth, Yu-Chih Lin, Xin-Ji Lai, and Chau-Jern Cheng*
Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Technology,
National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan
In digital holographic microscopy (DHM) achieving phase sensitivity is signifcant, which plays a major role in deciding the accuracy of the system. Our study elucidates the achievement of axial sub-nanometer precision with improvement in net phase sensitivity by instantaneous use of phase reference and temporal averaging techniques in DHM. To enhance the spatial resolution we implemented a synthetic aperture (SA) DHM system. The use of spectrum normalization method in SA-DHM system has helped to increase the spatial resolution and the phase sensitivity of the system. We also demonstrated the 3D imaging method based on sectional imaging technique to measure the refractive index variation between the spliced end of single mode fber and the polarization maintaining fber with digital holographic microscopy and tomography system (DHMT).© Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Digital holographic microscopy (DHM), Spatial resolution, Phase sensitivity, Tomography system.
Balasubramani Vinoth, Yu-Chih Lin, Xin-Ji Lai, and Chau-Jern Cheng
Asian Journal of Physics
Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 511-519
Recent advances in fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation based optical pattern recognition techniques
Paheding Sidike1, Vijayan K Asari1 and Mohammad S Alam2
1Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 USA
In real-time Optical Pattern Recognition (OPR), Fringe-adjusted Joint Transform Correlation (FJTC) has shown very promising performance compared to alternate JTCs. This paper provides a systematic review of the recent advances in the FJTC based OPR algorithms, including the classical FJTC, Phase-encoded FJTC (PFJTC), Shifted Phased-encoded FJTC (SPFJTC), and Logarithmic FJTC (LFJTC). We also evaluate their performance on the face recognition using three standard face recognition databases, namely the Yale face database, the extended Yale-Bdatabase and CMU-AMPdatabase. Test results show that the LFJTC provides superior performance compared to the state-of-the-art FJTC based OPR methods.
Key words: Optical Pattern Recognition (OPR), Fringe-adjusted Joint Transform Correlation (FJTC), Phase-encoded FJTC (PFJTC), Shifted Phased-encoded FJTC (SPFJTC), Logarithmic FJTC (LFJTC). © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
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Asian Journal of Physics
Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 533-554
Active and tunable near-infrared hyperbolic metamaterials
Joseph Smalley1, Conor T Riley2, Felipe Vallini1 , Donald J Sirbuly2, Zhaowei Liu1,Yeshaiahu Fainman1
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UC San Diego
2Department of NanoEngineering, UC San Diego
Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) are metal-dielectric composite materials that exhibit hyperbolic dispersion for electromagnetic waves. The extreme anisotropy and broadband optical density of states associated with hyperbolic dispersion enable enhanced spontaneous emission rates and nonlinear processes, as well as guiding of light below the diffraction limit. While promising for next-generation nanophotonic devices and circuits, the behavior of passive HMMs are limited by fixed properties and high dissipation rates. Therefore, HMMs with active components for tunable properties and loss-compensation have become a subject of intense research. In this review, we investigate active and tunable HMM in the near-infrared frequency regime. We review HMMs based on indium gallium arsenide phosphide (InGaAsP) multiple quantum wells (MQW), a gain material commonly used in lasers for communication systems, as well as HMMs based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO), a transition conducting oxide with synthesis-dependent properties. We also offer an outlook on circuit-level applications of active, near-infrared HMM. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Photonics, Metamaterials, Nanophotonic devices, Mulitple quantum wells (MQW)
Photonics is the scientific and engineering discipline devoted to the generation, transmission, processing, and detection of light. Fueling photonics are fundamental questions rooted in human curiosity along with practical questions rooted in human wants and needs. Photonics combines classical electromagnetism and condensed matter physics, with engineering practices, enabling the global fiber-optic communication system, energy-efficient illumination, and devices for sensing disease and pollution. Increasingly, the interaction of light with materials at the nanoscale has become more accessible and better understood. Nanoscale photonics, or herein simply, nanophotonics, focuses on these interactions, and combines the tools of nanotechnology with the already interdisciplinary scope of photonics.
Moore’s Law  describes the revolutionary process in which the characteristic length scale of transistors was reduced from over 10 μm to 5 nm, between the 1960s and today, resulting in the reduction of per-transistor price from 5 dollars to less than one billionth of one dollar . Guided by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, the information processing and storage capacity of human civilization has increased exponentially [2,3]. Photonics undoubtedly helped enable the electronics revolution through photo-lithography machines with ever increasing resolution. However, because the ultimate speed limit of photons far exceeds that of electrons, there has also been a steady trend to reduce the characteristic length scale of photonic devices themselves . Traditionally, the dimensions of optical components, such as cavities and waveguides, have been limited to the order of the wavelength of operation. Nanophotonic devices have emerged, however, with sizes below the diffraction limit of light.
Corresponding author :
e-mail:[email protected] (Yeshaiahu Fainman)
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Asian Journal of Physics
Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 557-566
DMD gratings and its application in tunable fiber lasers
Fei-jun Song1 , Xiao Chen1, Feng Xiao2,and Kamal Alameh2
1 College of Science, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China
2 Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, 6027, Australia
Digital micromirror device (DMD), a kind of widely-used spatial light modulator is applied in tunable fiber lasers as wavelength selector. Based on the two-dimensional diffraction theory, the diffraction of DMD and its effect on properties of fiber laser parameters are analyzed in detail. The theoretical results show that the diffraction efficiency is strongly dependent upon the angle of incident light and the pixel spacing of DMD. Compared with the other models of DMDs, the 0.55-inch DMD grating is an approximate blazed state in our configuration, which makes most of the diffracted radiation concentrated into one order. It is therefore a better choice to improve the stability and reliability of tunable fiber laser systems. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: OCIS codes: 050.1950, 060.3510
1. Dana Dudley, Walter Duncan, John Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) application, SPIE, 4985, (2003) 14-20.
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3. Huebschman M L, Munjuluri Garner, H R, “Dynamic holographic 3-D image projection, ” Opt Express, 11(2003) 437-445.
4. Friedman PM, Skover GR, Payonk G, Kauvar ANB, Geronemus RG, “3D in-vivo optical skin imaging for topographical quantitative assessment of non-ablative laser technology, ” Dermatologic Surgery, 28(3): 199-204 (2002).
5. Cha S D, Lin P C, Zhu L J, Sun P C, Fainman Y, “Nontranslational three-dimensional profilometry by chromatic confocal microscopy with dynamically configurable micromirror scanning,” Appl. Optics, 39(16): 2605-2613 (2000)
6. Fukano T, Miyawaki A, “Whole-field fluorescence microscope with digital micromirror device: imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Optics 42(19): 4119–4124 (2003)
7. Woojin Shin, Bong-Ahn Yu, YeungLak Lee, Tae Jun Yu, Tae JoongEom, Young-Chul Noh, Jongmin Lee, and Do-KyeongKo, “Tunable Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on digital micro-mirror array”, Opt. Express, 14(12): 5356-5364 (2006)
8. Chen X, Wang Y Q, Huang K Z, Song F J, Chen G X, Sang X Z, Yan B B, Zhang Y, Xiao F, Alameh K, “Tunable polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber laser based on a MEMS processor, ” CLEO:2012 Laser science to photonic applications, JW2A.59, 2012
Asian Journal of Physics
Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 567-571
Testing Retina of Cataract Eye Using Speckle Pattern
Suganda Jutamulia1, Erning Wihardjo2 and Joewono Widjaja3
1University of Northern California, Rohnert Park, CA 94928, USA
2KridaWacana Christian University, Jakarta,11470, Indonesia
3Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 Thailand
We are currently performing the theoretical study and developing the design of laser diode device for testing the retina of a cataract eye. The operation is based on the speckle generated on the retina by the cataract lens, when the cataract lens is illuminated with a coherent laser light. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Retina, Cataract lens,UV light, Speckles
1. Green D G, Testing the vision of cataract patients by means of laser-generated interference fringes, Science, 168, (1970)1240-1242.
2. Jutamulia S, Gheen G, Diffraction pattern on retina for eye testing, Opt Eng, 34(1995)780-784.
3. Wikipedia, “Laser safety,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser_safety (2016).
4. Jutamulia F Z, Laser module for acupuncture, Asian J Phys, 24(2015)237-242.
Suganda Jutamulia, Erning Wihardjo and Joewono Widjaja
Asian Journal of Physics
Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 573-581
Transport of intensity and phase during beam propagation
Partha P Banerjee
Department of Electro-Optics and Photonics, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469, USA
Propagation of profiled beams are analyzed using the coupled equations involving the amplitude (or intensity) and phase which result from the underlying wave equation. It is shown that the transport of intensity equation, which provides a convenient means of calculating the phase and is an alternative to conventional holography, is equivalent to one of these coupled equations, and is a restatement of the conservation of energy. Other applications of the equations describing the propagation of intensity and phase are also discussed. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
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Asian Journal of Physics
Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 583-587
Thermo-optical property and frequency dispersion of lead barium niobate single crystal
Chunlai Li1, Ruyan Guo2*, and Amar S Bhalla2
1Shenzhen Mileseey Technology Co. LTD, Shenzhen, China 518000
2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Texas at San Antonio, SanAntonio, Texas 78249, USA
Frequency dependent thermo-optic coefficients of relaxor ferroelectric Pb1 – xBaxNb2O6, 1–x = 0.57 (PBN57) were measured at several optical wavelengths, 694nm, 633nm, 535nm, and 450nm. The thermo-optical coefficients are expressed in three terms describing relaxor-type diffusive phase transitions. The significance of the polarization term coming from the interaction among polar regions is discussed and confirmed, after comparing with the thermo-optic properties of PZN-0.12PT(0.88Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.12PbTiO3) normal-like ferroelectric crystal. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Thermo-optic coefficients,Nonliner optical devices, spontaneous polarization, Transverse dielectric permittivity, Electrooptic effect
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Asian Journal of Physics
Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 589-598
Visualization and quantification of light sources spectra with a simple cell phone based spectroscopic system
Rocío Espinosa-Gutierrez1, Ignacio Moreno1,*, Pascuala Garcia-Martinez2, Jenaro Guisasola3 and Jesús Carnicer4
1 Department of Materials Science, Optics and Electronics Technology, University Miguel Hernandez, 03202, Elche, Spain.
2 Department of Optics, University of Valencia, 45100, Burjassot, Spain.
3 Department of Applied Physics, University of Basque Country, 20014, San Sebastian, Spain.
In this paper, we present the implementation of a simple and low cost optical spectroscopic system based on the use of a common cell phone camera. It is shown how it can be useful for developing both qualitative spectra visualizations, to but also quantitative measurements. Therefore, it can be useful for application in demonstrations in science museums, as well as for introductory courses of Physics. In addition, it is also useful to measure wavelengths in a very simple manner.We show results with different gas-discharge lamps, lasers, LEDs or filament bulbs. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
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