An International Peer Reviewed Research Journal
Frequency : Monthly,
ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Editor-In-Chief (Hon.) :
Dr. V.K. Rastogi
e-mail:[email protected]
[email protected]

AJP ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Vol 29, Nos 10 – 12, October-December, 2020

Journal of Physics

Volume 29 Nos 10-12Oct-Dec, 2020

A Special Issue Dedicated
Prof F T S Yu

Guest Edited By : Prof Kehar Singh

Anita Publications
FF-43, 1st Floor, Mangal Bazar, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi-110 092, India

Francis T. S. Yu received his B.S.E.E. degree from Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila, Philippines, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Michigan.
During the period from 1958 to 1965, he was a teaching fellow, an instructor, and a lecturer in the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Michigan, and a research associate with the Communication Sciences Laboratory at the same University. From 1966 to 1980 he was on the faculty of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Wayne State University. He was a Visiting Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the University of Michigan from 1978-1979. In 1980 he became a Professor in the Electrical Engineering Department at The Pennsylvania State University. He has been a consultant to several industrial and government laboratories. He is an active researcher in the fields of optical signal processing, holography, optics and information theory, and optical computing. He has published over 300 refereed papers in these areas. He is a recipient of the 1983 Faculty Scholar Medal for Outstanding Achievement in Physical Sciences and Engineering, a recipient of the 1984 Outstanding Researcher in the College of Engineering, was named Evan Pugh Professor of Electrical Engineering in 1985 at Penn State, a recipient of the 1993 Premier Research Award from the Penn State Engineering Society, was named Honorary Professor at Nankai University in 1995, the co-recipient of the 1998 IEEE Donald G. Fink Prize Paper Award, named Honorary Professor in National Chiao Tung University Taiwan in 2004, the recipients of the 2004 SPIE Dennis Gabor Award, and the 2017 OSA Emmet N. Leith Medal. Yu is a life-fellow of IEEE and fellow of OSA, SPIE, and PSC. He retired from Penn State University in 2004.
He is the author and co-author of thirteen books entitled: (1) Introduction to Diffraction, Information Processing and Holography (translated in Russian), (2) Optics and Information Theory, (3) Optical Information Processing (translated in Chinese), (4) White-Light Optical Signal Processing, (5) Principles of Optical Engineering (with I. C. Khoo) (translated in Chinese), (6) Optical Signal Processing, Computing, and Neural Networks (with S. Jutamulia) (translated in Chinese and Japanese), (7) Introduction to Optical Engineering (with X. Yang) (translated Korean), (8) Entropy and Information Optics (translated in Chinese) (9) Introduction to Information Optics (with S. Jutamulia and S. Yin) (translated in Chinese), (10) Coherent Photonics (in Russian), (with A. Larkin in Russian), (11) Neural Networks and Education: The Art of Learning, (translated in Chinese, Spanish and Russian), (12) Neural Stickman: The Art of …(translated in Chinese, Spanish and Russian), (13) Origin of Temporal (t > 0) Universe: Connecting to Relativity, Entropy, Communication and Quantum Mechanics. And he also has contributed several invited chapters in various monographs and books.
He has co-edited four books entitled:
(1) Optical Storage and Retrieval (with S. Jutamulia),
(2) Optical Pattern Recognition (with S. Jutamulia),
(3) Photorefractive Optics (with S. Yin), and
(4) Fiber Sensors (with S. Yin).
He has also co-edited two volumes of SPIE Milestone Series; Optical Pattern recognition (with S. Yin) and Coherent Optical Processing (with S. Yin). And Chairs/Editors (with R. Guo and S. Yin) over twenty five volumes of SPIE Proceedings on Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties, and Applications.
Yu’s most notably work must be his current book on “Origin of Temporal (t > 0) Universe: Connecting to Relativity, Entropy, Communication and Quantum mechanics” And his article on “What is Wrong with Current Theoretical Physics”.
Currently Prof FTS Yu is Advisory Editor of Asian J Phys.

FTS Yu (left) and Kehar Singh (right) during ‘International Conference on Optics and Opto-electronics’ ICOL-1998, IRDE, Dehradun, India
About Guest Editors

Professor Kehar Singh served as a member of the faculty at IIT Delhi since 1965 in various capacities. He was an ‘Academic Visitor’ at Imperial College of Science & Technology, London during 1969-1970, and visited / carried out research for short periods at British Scientific and Industrial Research Association Ealing, Queen’s Univ. Belfast, and National Physical Laboratory Teddington. He had been a Professor since January 1984 and during the period 1996-1999 served as Head of Physics Deptt. Prof. Singh held the position of Dean, Post Graduate Studies and Research, IIT Delhi during the period of March 2001-Aug. 2003. He served as CLUSTER Chair at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland) in Dec.2002. Until June 30, 2011 he served as an Emeritus Professor at IIT Delhi where he continued to teach and carry out research.
Since 2011, he has been an Hony. Distinguished Research Professor at ITM (now NorthCap) University, Gurgaon (Haryana) where he mentors a group of faculty members and supervises research in the areas of Information Security, Singular Optics, and Nanophotonics (Photonic band gap structures, metamaterials, and plasmonics). Prof. Singh is also Chairman of the Research Council, IRDE (Defense Research & Development Organization) Dehradun and a member of the Cluster Advisory Council for a group of DRDO laboratories. He is a Member of the Research Council of National Physical Laboratory New Delhi. Since May 2015, he has been working as an Associate Editor of Optics Express, a high impact factor journal of the Optical Society of America (OSA).
Prof. Kehar Singh has been an active researcher and educator and created infrastructural facilities for teaching and research in his areas of specialization: Photonics/Information Optics (Image formation and evaluation, Dynamic holography, Nonlinear photorefractives, Optical correlators, Holographic storage, Digital holography, Singular optics, and Optical cryptography). He has published extensively, having authored / co-authored nearly 350 peer reviewed research papers. Besides these there are approx. 75 review articles in books and journals, and 70 papers in conference proceedings. His research papers have been cited extensively in the literature; one of the papers having crossed the number of 1000 citations.
Research publications by Prof. Singh and coworkers during the period 1965-1985 resulted in 11 Ph.D. theses. Since 1986, 20 students have completed Ph.D. degree under the supervision of Prof. Singh. Besides these, 75 Master of Technology and M.Sc. students have been guided in their dissertation work. He had been the backbone of the M.Tech. program in Applied Optics at IIT Delhi ever since it started in 1966. This program has produced many scientists who occupy key positions in India and abroad.
Professor Kehar Singh was honoured with Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award in Physical Sciences in 1985 by the CSIR, Govt. of India. He has been awarded in 2001, the Galileo Galilei Award of the International Commission on Optics. The Optical Society of India honoured him with the ‘OSI Award’. He was also given ‘Life Time Achievement Award’ at the OSI symp. held at Tezpur in Dec.2007,and Golden Jubilee ‘Distinguished Service Award’ of IIT Delhi in 2011.Prof.Singh was also honored in 2011, under the Golden Jubilee ‘Honor the Mentor’ program’ of IIT Delhi.
Prof. Singh is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America, SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering), and Indian National Academy of Engineering, in addition to being a Distinguished Fellow of the Optical Society of India and a Fellow of the Laser & Spectroscopy Society of India. He was President of the Optical Society of India from 1991 to 1994 and its Vice-President from 1988 to 1991. He also served as the President of ‘Laser and Spectroscopy Society’ of India and was President, Indian Science Congress Association (Physical Sciences Section) in 2004. Prof. Singh had been an international advisory member of the editorial board of Optical Review (Japan, 1994-2010 ), Member of the editorial boards of Optics & Lasers in Engg. (Elsevier, 1999 – 2006). Currently he serves as an Associate Editor of Optics Express (2015—-todate), Computer Optics (Russia), J. Optics (India, 1974 – to date), Asian J Phys. (1992 – to date). and Invertis J. Science and Technol (2007- ). He also served as an editorial board member of the Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys.(CSIR, 1986–88).
Prof. Singh has been serving as a reviewer of research papers for several journals of repute. He has given approx. 100 invited lectures in various international and national conferences/seminars/workshops and has also been associated as member of organizing/technical/steering committees of several international and national conferences/seminars/ workshops. He has visited U.K, France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Canada, USA, Mexico, Japan, South Korea, Australia, Singapore, and Indonesia for delivering lectures in conferences. He was one of the Directors of the II Winter College in Optics held at ICTP, Trieste, Italy during Feb-March, 1995.
Professor Singh’s research work attracted funding for sponsored research in the field of Optics and Photonics from a number of Govt. agencies such as Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Human Resource Development, and Defense Research and Development Organization. He has served on many committees of the Govt. of India (e.g. Environmental Impact Assessment Committee, Ministry of Environment and Forests) and has been a consultant to some industries.
As Technical chair of the International Conference on ‘Optics and Optoelectronics’ held in Dehradun, India in Dec. 1998, Prof. Singh co-edited a two volume proceedings of the conference, and SPIE volume 3729, Selected papers from International Conference on Optics and Optoelectronics’98 (Silver Jubilee Symposium of the Optical Society of India). He was Technical co-chair of the International conference on Optics and Opto-electronics held in December 2005 at Dehradun, and Co-chair Advisory Committee of the OSI confer. held in Jan.2012 at IIT Delhi. He was Technical chair of OSI’s international conference held at GJ Univ.of Science &Technol. in Hisar, during the period Nov.23-26, 2017, and Chair International Advisory Committee of Photonics-2018 held at IIT Delhi during the period Dec.12-15,2018. Prof Singh was also the Technical Chair and Chair International Advisory Committee of the International Conference on Optics and Electro-optics held at IRDE Dehradun during the period Oct.19-22,
Professor Singh has edited / co-edited 2 special issues on ‘Photorefractives and their applications’ of J. Optics (India), 4 issues on ‘Optical pattern recognition’ and ‘Optical information security’ of Asian J Physics, and a book on ‘Perspectives in Engineering Optics’. A book brought out by IIT Delhi, containing memoirs of some of the ‘Golden Jubilee Distinguished Award’ winner retired faculty members of IIT Delhi, has also been edited by Prof. Singh.
Prof. Singh has also served as a member/chair of several national committees of the MHRD, CSIR, ISRO, DRDO, and INAE. Besides having served as a consultant to some industries/organizations, he has also been a consultant on security holograms to some state Govts. in India. He served as a member of the Executive Committee, National Photonics Program DRDO, and is a member of the National Advisory Council, NorthCap University Gurgaon. He served as a member of the Board of Governors of Regional Engineering.College. Kurukshetra and served on the ‘Academic advisory councils’, ‘Board of Studies’ and ‘Research degree committees’ of several universities. He also served as an invited Senate member of National Institute of Technology Agartala (Tripura).


Measurement of two-point coherence functions of electromagnetic optical fields, and applications of optical coherence
Bhaskar Kanseri and Deepa Joshi

Effect of pixel size and pixel fill-factor of a pixelated device on the holographically shaped beam
Nagendra Kumar and Bosanta R Boruah

iLens interferometer for probing nanoscale plasma dynamics
Pooja Munjal, VishavdeepVashisht, and Kamal P Singh

Single-channel color image encryption and watermarking using phase-truncated gyrator transform Invited
Muhammad Rafiq Abuturab

Magneto-optics for optical modulation
Abhinav Kala, Vladimir I Belotelov and Venu Gopal Achanta

Design and analysis of Semiconductor Optical Amplifier basedall-optical ternary delta-literal circuit and its application in the multi-valued logic system
A Raja, K Mukherjee and J N Roy

On the use of complex derivatives in phase reconstruction problems in optics
Kedar Khare

Coupled waveguide structures with absorbing waveguides for applications in optical pumping
M R Shenoy and Nithin V

Interferometric interrogation of in-fiber grating sensors
Bhargab Das

Off-axis speckle holography for looking through a barrier: A review
Abhijit Roy, Rakesh Kumar Singh and Maruthi M Brundavanam

Convolutional neural network based fringe pattern denoising algorithm
D Bhatt, R Kulkarni and P K Rastogi

Spectral switching –experimental study to technological solutions
Bharat K Yadav and H C Kandpal

Artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches in quantitative phase microscopy
Vikas Thapa, Ashwini Subhash Galande, Hanu Phani Ram, Renu John

Role of self-referenced interferometry in measuring the orbital angular momentum of optical vortices: A review
Praveen Kumar, Naveen K Nishchal and Kehar Singh

Scaling up low resolution noisy images in a multi-aperture imaging system
Suhita Tawade, Suresh Panchal, Rajeev Kumar and Unnikrishnan Gopinathan

Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 649-671

Measurement of two-point coherence functions of electromagnetic optical fields, and applications of optical coherence

Bhaskar Kanseri and Deepa Joshi

Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110 016, India

This article is dedicated to Prof FTS Yu for his significant contributions to Optics and Optical information Processing

For stationary light fields, manifestation of statistical properties such as coherence and polarization are attributed to the same physical phenomena, i. e. correlations in fluctuations of optical fields. In order to explain various properties associated with electromagnetic optical fields, both coherence and polarization need to be placed at same footings. This leads to two-point (space or time) generalization of single-point properties such as Stokes parameters and elements of coherency matrix. This paper reviews the basic aspects concerning vectorial optical fields and experimental methods developed during last couple of decades for the measurement of two-point correlation functions of electromagnetic optical fields in spatial and temporal domain. Studies related to coherence properties of optical fields have led to several important technological applications during last seven decades, which are also discussed briefly in this review. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Coherence, Polarization, Interference, Electromagnetic fields.


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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 673-680

Effect of pixel size and pixel fill-factor of a pixelated device on the holographically shaped beam

Nagendra Kumar and Bosanta R Boruah

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781 039, Assam, India

This article is dedicated to Prof FTS Yu for his significant contributions to Optics and Optical information Processing

Pixelated light modulating devices, such as liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM), provide a dynamic means to generate user defined wavefronts. This is done using the principle of computer-generated holography with the LCSLM acting as the hologram. However, the pixels of any pixelated device have a finite fill-factor which is often less than hundred percent. The pixel fill-factor may not only affect the diffraction efficiency of the generated beam but also may affect the accuracy of the generated wavefront. In this paper, we investigate theoretically and numerically, how this fill- factor of a pixelated device implementing a hologram, can affect the accuracy in beam shaping. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Wavefront, Spatial light modulator, Pixelated device, Hologram, Beam shaping, Fill-factor.


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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 681-689

iLens interferometer for probing nanoscale plasma dynamics

Pooja Munjal, Vishavdeep Vashisht, and Kamal P Singh

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISERMohali, Sector 81, SAS Nagar, Punjab, India

This article is dedicated to Prof FTS Yu for his significant contributions to Optics and Optical information Processing

A plasma is created in diverse situations from lightning in the atmosphere to inside a flame, and it possesses intriguing properties, with many applications in precision material processing. Here, we demonstrate a collinear single interference lens (iLens) based interferometer setup to study the nanoscale dynamical properties of plasma in real-time. We present a detailed theoretical analysis of Gaussian beam propagation through our iLens interferometer using ABCD matrices and achieve conditions for formation of high contrast fringes. We show a self-calibration procedure for nanoscale measurement in linear regime with high stability. Taking ethanol flame as an example of a plasma medium, we quantitatively measure variation in its optical density, refractive index, and temperature distribution by raster scanning the flame in the iLens cavity. Our simple yet precise technique will enable probing intriguing properties of plasma created by intense femtosecond pulse.© Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: iLens interferometer, Gaussian beam, Plasma, Flame, ABCD matrix, Nanoscale dynamics


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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 691-698

Single-channel color image encryption and watermarking using phase-truncated gyrator transform

Muhammad Rafiq Abuturab

Optical Information Science Research Center (OISRC), Patna- 800 014, India

Department of Physics, Maulana Azad College of Engineering and TechnologyPatna- 801 113, India

This article is dedicated to Prof FTS Yu for his significant contributions to Optics and Optical information Processing

This paper presents a new single-channel color image encryption and watermarking using phase-truncated gyrator transform. In this system, an input color image is segregated into R, G and B channels. They are modulated by multiplying three independent random phase masks. The three modulated color channels are independently gyrator transformed and then combined into one gray image by using convolution. The convoluted image is then amplitude- and phase- truncated to produce first encrypted image and first decryption phase key. Now the first encrypted image is gyrator transformed and then again phase- and amplitude- truncated to generate second encrypted image and second decryption phase key. The second encrypted image is fused with host image to get watermarked image. A single-channel image encryption method makes the proposed system compact and feasible. The angles of GT offer remarkably sensitive keys. The proposed optoelectronic design does not suffer from optical misalignment problem. Numerical simulations show the feasibility and security of the proposed system. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Random phase masks, Asymmetric cryptosystem, Gyrator transform.


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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 773-785

Off-axis speckle holography for looking through a barrier: A review
Abhijit Roy1, Rakesh Kumar Singh2 and Maruthi M Brundavanam1
1Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721 302, (W B), India
2Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi-221 005, India
This article is dedicated to Prof FTS Yu for his significant contributions to Optics and Optical information Processing

This paper presents a review on the application of off-axis speckle holography for looking through an optical barrier. In off-axis speckle holography technique, a titled reference speckle pattern is superposed with an object speckle pattern to retrieve the phase information of the Fourier spectrum of the object embedded into the speckles. The two-point intensity correlation technique along with the phase retrieved utilizing this simple experimental approach, are used to recover the amplitude, phase and polarization information of an object obscured by an optical scattering medium, employing the van Cittert-Zernike theorem. In this review article, theoretical details of the technique along with the experimental results on the optimization of this approach for different 2D imaging, such as, the imaging of complex and polarized objects, are presented. It is also shown that the depth resolved imaging of a 3D object can be achieved exploiting the off-axis speckle holography technique.© Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Speckle, Digital holography, Coherence hologram, Coherence and higher order correlations.


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Off-axis speckle holography for looking through…pdf

Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 797-803

Convolutional neural network based fringe pattern denoising algorithm

D Bhatt1, R Kulkarni2, and P K Rastogi3

1Department of Electrical Engineering , National Institute of Technology Surat -395 007India.

2Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahati-721 009AssamIndia.

3Applied Computing and Mechanics Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), LausanneSwitzerland.

This article is dedicated to Prof FTS Yu for his significant contributions to Optics and Optical information Processing

Fringe pattern denoising is a crucial pre-processing operation in the fringe analysis procedure for obtaining reliable quantitative measurements in an optical interferometric setup. A convolutional neural network based fringe denoising algorithm is proposed considering a simple model architecture. The network training is performed using fringe patterns generated with random phase profiles. The corresponding noisy fringe patterns are generated using multiplicative speckle noise model in order to simulate the practical fringe pattern recording process. The algorithm is designed such that arbitrary sized fringe pattern denoising can be performed. Simulation and experimental results are provided for performance comparison of the proposed algorithm with some representative State-of-Art techniques. The results substantiate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in practical applications. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fringe pattern denoising, Convolutional neural network, Speckle noise, Optical interferometry.


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Convolutional neural network based fringe pattern..pdf

Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 835-852 

Role of self-referenced interferometry in measuring the orbital angular momentum of optical vortices: A review

Praveen Kumar1, Naveen K Nishchal1 and Kehar Singh2

1Department of PhysicsIndian Institute of Technology Patna, Bihta, Patna-801 106India

2Department of Applied Sciences, The NorthCap University, Gurugram- 122 017, India

This article is dedicated to Prof FTS Yu for his significant contributions to Optics and Optical information Processing

Association of optical vortices with the orbital angular momentum of light provides a new understanding of various optical and physical phenomena. For widespread applications of vortex beams in diverse areas, different techniques for their efficient generation and detection have been investigated. Self-referenced interferometric techniques are often encountered to examine the phase singularity of optical vortices through intensity measurements. This paper reviews the recent progress in techniques for topological charge measurement of vortex beams emphasizing the role of self-referenced interferometry. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Optical vortices, Vortex beam, Orbital angular momentum, Phase singularity, Interferometry. 

Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 891-905

Thin film sensing with terahertz metamaterials

Dibakar Roy Chowdhury1, Parama Pal2, and Bishnu P Pal1

1Department of Physics, Ecole Centrale School of Engineering – Mahindra University, Bahadurpally, Hyderabad-500 043India

2TCS Research Labs, Bangalore-560 066India


This article is dedicated to Prof FTS Yu for his significant contributions to Optics and Optical information Processing

Plasmonic metamaterials-based sensing has generated a great deal of interests in recent years because of the relatively simple designs involved with metamaterials combined with strong field confinement attainable at the sub-wavelength scales. Normally high-quality factor resonance-based metamaterials are desirable to realize efficient meta sensors. In this paper, we have reviewed several metamaterials-based interesting schemes to design thin film sensors, in particular. We have also described the benefits and drawbacks of the reported sensing techniques. This review should be helpful to achieve smart designs of terahertz metamaterials-based sensors for exploitation with rich dividends. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Metamaterials, Metasurfaces, Terahertz, Sensing, Thin films.

Thin film sensing with terahertz metamaterials.pdf