Editor-in-Chief : V.K. Rastogi
|AJP||ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Vol 29, Nos 10 – 12, October-December, 2020
Journal of Physics
Volume 29 Nos 10-12Oct-Dec, 2020
A Special Issue Dedicated
Prof F T S Yu
Guest Edited By : Prof Kehar Singh
FF-43, 1st Floor, Mangal Bazar, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi-110 092, India
Francis T. S. Yu received his B.S.E.E. degree from Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila, Philippines, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Michigan.
During the period from 1958 to 1965, he was a teaching fellow, an instructor, and a lecturer in the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Michigan, and a research associate with the Communication Sciences Laboratory at the same University. From 1966 to 1980 he was on the faculty of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Wayne State University. He was a Visiting Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the University of Michigan from 1978-1979. In 1980 he became a Professor in the Electrical Engineering Department at The Pennsylvania State University. He has been a consultant to several industrial and government laboratories. He is an active researcher in the fields of optical signal processing, holography, optics and information theory, and optical computing. He has published over 300 refereed papers in these areas. He is a recipient of the 1983 Faculty Scholar Medal for Outstanding Achievement in Physical Sciences and Engineering, a recipient of the 1984 Outstanding Researcher in the College of Engineering, was named Evan Pugh Professor of Electrical Engineering in 1985 at Penn State, a recipient of the 1993 Premier Research Award from the Penn State Engineering Society, was named Honorary Professor at Nankai University in 1995, the co-recipient of the 1998 IEEE Donald G. Fink Prize Paper Award, named Honorary Professor in National Chiao Tung University Taiwan in 2004, the recipients of the 2004 SPIE Dennis Gabor Award, and the 2017 OSA Emmet N. Leith Medal. Yu is a life-fellow of IEEE and fellow of OSA, SPIE, and PSC. He retired from Penn State University in 2004.
He is the author and co-author of thirteen books entitled: (1) Introduction to Diffraction, Information Processing and Holography (translated in Russian), (2) Optics and Information Theory, (3) Optical Information Processing (translated in Chinese), (4) White-Light Optical Signal Processing, (5) Principles of Optical Engineering (with I. C. Khoo) (translated in Chinese), (6) Optical Signal Processing, Computing, and Neural Networks (with S. Jutamulia) (translated in Chinese and Japanese), (7) Introduction to Optical Engineering (with X. Yang) (translated Korean), (8) Entropy and Information Optics (translated in Chinese) (9) Introduction to Information Optics (with S. Jutamulia and S. Yin) (translated in Chinese), (10) Coherent Photonics (in Russian), (with A. Larkin in Russian), (11) Neural Networks and Education: The Art of Learning, (translated in Chinese, Spanish and Russian), (12) Neural Stickman: The Art of …(translated in Chinese, Spanish and Russian), (13) Origin of Temporal (t > 0) Universe: Connecting to Relativity, Entropy, Communication and Quantum Mechanics. And he also has contributed several invited chapters in various monographs and books.
He has co-edited four books entitled:
(1) Optical Storage and Retrieval (with S. Jutamulia),
(2) Optical Pattern Recognition (with S. Jutamulia),
(3) Photorefractive Optics (with S. Yin), and
(4) Fiber Sensors (with S. Yin).
He has also co-edited two volumes of SPIE Milestone Series; Optical Pattern recognition (with S. Yin) and Coherent Optical Processing (with S. Yin). And Chairs/Editors (with R. Guo and S. Yin) over twenty five volumes of SPIE Proceedings on Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties, and Applications.
Yu’s most notably work must be his current book on “Origin of Temporal (t > 0) Universe: Connecting to Relativity, Entropy, Communication and Quantum mechanics” And his article on “What is Wrong with Current Theoretical Physics”.
Currently Prof FTS Yu is Advisory Editor of Asian J Phys.
|About Guest Editors|
Professor Kehar Singh served as a member of the faculty at IIT Delhi since 1965 in various capacities. He was an ‘Academic Visitor’ at Imperial College of Science & Technology, London during 1969-1970, and visited / carried out research for short periods at British Scientific and Industrial Research Association Ealing, Queen’s Univ. Belfast, and National Physical Laboratory Teddington. He had been a Professor since January 1984 and during the period 1996-1999 served as Head of Physics Deptt. Prof. Singh held the position of Dean, Post Graduate Studies and Research, IIT Delhi during the period of March 2001-Aug. 2003. He served as CLUSTER Chair at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland) in Dec.2002. Until June 30, 2011 he served as an Emeritus Professor at IIT Delhi where he continued to teach and carry out research.
Since 2011, he has been an Hony. Distinguished Research Professor at ITM (now NorthCap) University, Gurgaon (Haryana) where he mentors a group of faculty members and supervises research in the areas of Information Security, Singular Optics, and Nanophotonics (Photonic band gap structures, metamaterials, and plasmonics). Prof. Singh is also Chairman of the Research Council, IRDE (Defense Research & Development Organization) Dehradun and a member of the Cluster Advisory Council for a group of DRDO laboratories. He is a Member of the Research Council of National Physical Laboratory New Delhi. Since May 2015, he has been working as an Associate Editor of Optics Express, a high impact factor journal of the Optical Society of America (OSA).
Prof. Kehar Singh has been an active researcher and educator and created infrastructural facilities for teaching and research in his areas of specialization: Photonics/Information Optics (Image formation and evaluation, Dynamic holography, Nonlinear photorefractives, Optical correlators, Holographic storage, Digital holography, Singular optics, and Optical cryptography). He has published extensively, having authored / co-authored nearly 350 peer reviewed research papers. Besides these there are approx. 75 review articles in books and journals, and 70 papers in conference proceedings. His research papers have been cited extensively in the literature; one of the papers having crossed the number of 1000 citations.
Research publications by Prof. Singh and coworkers during the period 1965-1985 resulted in 11 Ph.D. theses. Since 1986, 20 students have completed Ph.D. degree under the supervision of Prof. Singh. Besides these, 75 Master of Technology and M.Sc. students have been guided in their dissertation work. He had been the backbone of the M.Tech. program in Applied Optics at IIT Delhi ever since it started in 1966. This program has produced many scientists who occupy key positions in India and abroad.
Professor Kehar Singh was honoured with Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award in Physical Sciences in 1985 by the CSIR, Govt. of India. He has been awarded in 2001, the Galileo Galilei Award of the International Commission on Optics. The Optical Society of India honoured him with the ‘OSI Award’. He was also given ‘Life Time Achievement Award’ at the OSI symp. held at Tezpur in Dec.2007,and Golden Jubilee ‘Distinguished Service Award’ of IIT Delhi in 2011.Prof.Singh was also honored in 2011, under the Golden Jubilee ‘Honor the Mentor’ program’ of IIT Delhi.
Prof. Singh is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America, SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering), and Indian National Academy of Engineering, in addition to being a Distinguished Fellow of the Optical Society of India and a Fellow of the Laser & Spectroscopy Society of India. He was President of the Optical Society of India from 1991 to 1994 and its Vice-President from 1988 to 1991. He also served as the President of ‘Laser and Spectroscopy Society’ of India and was President, Indian Science Congress Association (Physical Sciences Section) in 2004. Prof. Singh had been an international advisory member of the editorial board of Optical Review (Japan, 1994-2010 ), Member of the editorial boards of Optics & Lasers in Engg. (Elsevier, 1999 – 2006). Currently he serves as an Associate Editor of Optics Express (2015—-todate), Computer Optics (Russia), J. Optics (India, 1974 – to date), Asian J Phys. (1992 – to date). and Invertis J. Science and Technol (2007- ). He also served as an editorial board member of the Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys.(CSIR, 1986–88).
Prof. Singh has been serving as a reviewer of research papers for several journals of repute. He has given approx. 100 invited lectures in various international and national conferences/seminars/workshops and has also been associated as member of organizing/technical/steering committees of several international and national conferences/seminars/ workshops. He has visited U.K, France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Canada, USA, Mexico, Japan, South Korea, Australia, Singapore, and Indonesia for delivering lectures in conferences. He was one of the Directors of the II Winter College in Optics held at ICTP, Trieste, Italy during Feb-March, 1995.
Professor Singh’s research work attracted funding for sponsored research in the field of Optics and Photonics from a number of Govt. agencies such as Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Human Resource Development, and Defense Research and Development Organization. He has served on many committees of the Govt. of India (e.g. Environmental Impact Assessment Committee, Ministry of Environment and Forests) and has been a consultant to some industries.
As Technical chair of the International Conference on ‘Optics and Optoelectronics’ held in Dehradun, India in Dec. 1998, Prof. Singh co-edited a two volume proceedings of the conference, and SPIE volume 3729, Selected papers from International Conference on Optics and Optoelectronics’98 (Silver Jubilee Symposium of the Optical Society of India). He was Technical co-chair of the International conference on Optics and Opto-electronics held in December 2005 at Dehradun, and Co-chair Advisory Committee of the OSI confer. held in Jan.2012 at IIT Delhi. He was Technical chair of OSI’s international conference held at GJ Univ.of Science &Technol. in Hisar, during the period Nov.23-26, 2017, and Chair International Advisory Committee of Photonics-2018 held at IIT Delhi during the period Dec.12-15,2018. Prof Singh was also the Technical Chair and Chair International Advisory Committee of the International Conference on Optics and Electro-optics held at IRDE Dehradun during the period Oct.19-22,
Professor Singh has edited / co-edited 2 special issues on ‘Photorefractives and their applications’ of J. Optics (India), 4 issues on ‘Optical pattern recognition’ and ‘Optical information security’ of Asian J Physics, and a book on ‘Perspectives in Engineering Optics’. A book brought out by IIT Delhi, containing memoirs of some of the ‘Golden Jubilee Distinguished Award’ winner retired faculty members of IIT Delhi, has also been edited by Prof. Singh.
Prof. Singh has also served as a member/chair of several national committees of the MHRD, CSIR, ISRO, DRDO, and INAE. Besides having served as a consultant to some industries/organizations, he has also been a consultant on security holograms to some state Govts. in India. He served as a member of the Executive Committee, National Photonics Program DRDO, and is a member of the National Advisory Council, NorthCap University Gurgaon. He served as a member of the Board of Governors of Regional Engineering.College. Kurukshetra and served on the ‘Academic advisory councils’, ‘Board of Studies’ and ‘Research degree committees’ of several universities. He also served as an invited Senate member of National Institute of Technology Agartala (Tripura).
Measurement of two-point coherence functions of electromagnetic optical fields, and applications of optical coherence
Bhaskar Kanseri and Deepa Joshi
Effect of pixel size and pixel fill-factor of a pixelated device on the holographically shaped beam
Nagendra Kumar and Bosanta R Boruah
iLens interferometer for probing nanoscale plasma dynamics
Pooja Munjal, VishavdeepVashisht, and Kamal P Singh
Single-channel color image encryption and watermarking using phase-truncated gyrator transform Invited
Muhammad Rafiq Abuturab
Magneto-optics for optical modulation
Abhinav Kala, Vladimir I Belotelov and Venu Gopal Achanta
Design and analysis of Semiconductor Optical Amplifier basedall-optical ternary delta-literal circuit and its application in the multi-valued logic system
A Raja, K Mukherjee and J N Roy
On the use of complex derivatives in phase reconstruction problems in optics
Coupled waveguide structures with absorbing waveguides for applications in optical pumping
M R Shenoy and Nithin V
Interferometric interrogation of in-fiber grating sensors
Off-axis speckle holography for looking through a barrier: A review
Abhijit Roy, Rakesh Kumar Singh and Maruthi M Brundavanam
Convolutional neural network based fringe pattern denoising algorithm
D Bhatt, R Kulkarni and P K Rastogi
Spectral switching –experimental study to technological solutions
Bharat K Yadav and H C Kandpal
Artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches in quantitative phase microscopy
Vikas Thapa, Ashwini Subhash Galande, Hanu Phani Ram, Renu John
Role of self-referenced interferometry in measuring the orbital angular momentum of optical vortices: A review
Praveen Kumar, Naveen K Nishchal and Kehar Singh
Scaling up low resolution noisy images in a multi-aperture imaging system
Suhita Tawade, Suresh Panchal, Rajeev Kumar and Unnikrishnan Gopinathan
|Asian Journal of Physics||Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 649-671|
Measurement of two-point coherence functions of electromagnetic optical fields, and applications of optical coherence
Bhaskar Kanseri and Deepa Joshi
Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110 016, India
For stationary light fields, manifestation of statistical properties such as coherence and polarization are attributed to the same physical phenomena, i. e. correlations in fluctuations of optical fields. In order to explain various properties associated with electromagnetic optical fields, both coherence and polarization need to be placed at same footings. This leads to two-point (space or time) generalization of single-point properties such as Stokes parameters and elements of coherency matrix. This paper reviews the basic aspects concerning vectorial optical fields and experimental methods developed during last couple of decades for the measurement of two-point correlation functions of electromagnetic optical fields in spatial and temporal domain. Studies related to coherence properties of optical fields have led to several important technological applications during last seven decades, which are also discussed briefly in this review. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Coherence, Polarization, Interference, Electromagnetic fields.
- Zernike F, The concept of degree of coherence and its application to optical problems, Physica, 5(1938)785-795.
- Hopkins H H, The concept of partial coherence in optics, Proc Roy Soc A, 208(1951)263-277.
- Wolf E, Optics in terms of observable quantities, Nuovo Cimento, 12(1954)884-888.
- Pancharatnam S, Generalized theory of interference and its applications, Proc Indian Acad Sci, 44(1956)398-417.
- Wolf E, Coherence properties of partially polarized electromagnetic radiation, Nuovo Cimento, 13(1959)1165-1181.
- Stokes G G, On the composition and resolution of streams of polarized light from different sources, Trans Camb Phil Soc, 9(1852)399-416.
- Goldstein D H, Polarized Light, 3rd edn, (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida), 2011.
- Born M, Wolf E, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th edn, (Cambridge University), 1999.
- Hauge P S, Survey of methods for the complete determination of a state of polarization, SPIE, 88(1976)3-10; doi.org/10.1117/12.955006.
- Berry H G, Gabrielse G, Livingston A E, Measurement of the Stokes parameters of light, Appl Opt, 16(1977)3200-3205.
- Marathay A S, Elements of Optical Coherence Theory, (John Wiley and Sons, New York), 1982.
- Mandel L, Wolf E, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics, (Cambridge University Press), 1995.
- Martnez-Herrero R, Mejas P M, Piquero G, Characterization of Partially Polarized Light Fields, (Springer), 2009.
- Agarwal G S, Classen A, Partial coherence in modern optics: Emil Wolf’s legacy in the 21st century, Progr Opt,65(2020)13-42.
- Wolf E, Introduction to the theory of coherence and polarization of light, (Cambridge University Press), 2007.
- Gori F, Santarsiero M, Vicalvi S, Borghi R, Guattari G, Beam coherence-polarization matrix, J Eur Opt Soc A: Pure App Opt, 7(1998)941-951.
- Kanseri B, Optical Coherence and Polarization: An Experimental Outlook, (LAP Lambert Academic Publishing), 2013.
- Wolf E, Unified theory of coherence and polarization of random electromagnetic beams, Phys Lett A, 312(2003)263-267.
- James D F V, Changes of polarization of light beams on propagation in free space, J Opt Soc Am A, 11(1994)1641-1643.
- Salem M, Wolf E, Coherence-induced polarization changes in light beams, Opt Lett, 33(2008)1180-1182.
- Agrawal G P, Wolf E, Propagation-induced polarization changes in partially coherent optical beams, J Opt Soc Am A, 17(2000)2019-2023.
- Tervo J, Setälä T, Friberg AT, Degree of coherence for electromagnetic fields, Opt Express, 11(2003)1137-1143.
- Tervo J, Setälä T, Roueff A, Réfrégier P, Friberg AT, Two-point Stokes parameters: interpretation and properties, Opt Lett, 34(2009)3074–3076.
- Wolf E, Correlation-induced changes in the degree of polarization, the degree of coherence, and the spectrum of random electromagnetic beams on propagation, Opt Lett, 28(2003)1078-1080.
- Gori F, Matrix treatment for partially polarized, partially coherent beams, Opt Lett, 23(1998)241-243.
- Friberg A T, Setälä T, Electromagnetic theory of optical coherence [Invited], J Opt Soc Am A, 33(2016)2431-2442.
- Setala T, Tervo J, Friberg A T, Stokes parameters and polarization contrast in Young’s interference experiment, Opt Lett, 31(2006)2208-2210.
- Friberg A T, Wolf E, Relationships between the complex degrees of coherence in the space-time and in the space-frequency domains, Opt Lett, 20(1995)623-625.
- Setala T, Nunziata F, Friberg A T, Differences between partial polarizations in the space-time and space-frequency domains, Opt Lett, 34(2009)2924-2926.
- Setala T, Tervo J, Friberg A T, Contrasts of Stokes parameters in Young’s interference experiment and electromagnetic degree of coherence, Opt Lett, 31(2006)2669-2671.
- Sethuraj K R, Kanseri B, Characterization of the electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beam using first-order interference, J Opt Soc Am A, 37(2020)458-465.
- Kanseri B, Kandpal H C, Determination of the cross-spectral density matrix and generalized Stokes parameters for a laser beam, Opt Lett, 33(2008)2410-2412.
- Kanseri B, Rath S, Kandpal H C, Determination of the beam coherence-polarization matrix of a random electromagnetic beam, IEEE J Quantum Electron, 45 (2009)1163-1167.
- Kanseri B, Rath S, Kandpal H C, Direct determination of the generalized Stokes parameters from the usual Stokes parameters, Opt Lett, 34(2009)719-721.
- Kanseri B, Rath S, Kandpal H C, Determination of the amplitude and the phase of the electric cross-spectral density matrix by spectral measurements, Opt Commun, 282(2009)3059-3062.
- Kanseri B, Kandpal H C, Experimental determination of two-point Stokes parameters for a partially coherent broadband beam, Opt Commun, 283(2010)4558-4562.
- Basso G, Oliveira L, Vidal I, Complete characterization of partially coherent and partially polarized optical fields, Opt Lett, 39(2014)1220-1222.
- Leppänen L P, Friberg A T, Setälä T, Temporal electromagnetic degree of coherence and Stokes-parameter modulations in Michelson’s interferometer, Appl Phys B, 122(2016)1-5.
- Leppänen L P, Saastamoinen K, Friberg A T, Setälä T, Measurement of the degree of temporal coherence of unpolarized light beams, Photon Res, 5(2017)156-161.
- Kanseri B, Joshi R. Determination of temporal electromagnetic degree of coherence of optical fields, Opt Commun, 457(2020)124710; doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2019.124710.
- Kanseri B, Arya G, Electromagnetic longitudinal spatial coherence of light fields, Opt Exp, 27(2019)24828-24834.
- Saastamoinen K, Leppänen L P, Vartiainen I, Friberg A T, Setälä T, Spatial coherence of light measured by nanoscattering, Optica, 5(2018)67-70.
- Ellis J, Dogariu A, Complex degree of mutual polarization, Opt Lett, 29(2004)536-538.
- Setala T, Tervo J, Friberg A T, Complete electromagnetic coherence in the space-frequency domain, Opt Lett, 29(2004)328-330.
- Ricklin J C, Davidson F M, Atmospheric turbulence effects on a partially coherent Gaussian beam: implications for free-space laser communication, J Opt Soc Am A, 19(2002)1794-1802.
- Kanseri B, Kandpal H C, Experimental study of the relation between the degrees of coherence in space-time and space-frequency domain, Opt Express, 18(2010)11838-11845.
- Korotkova O, Wolf E, Generalized Stokes parameters of random electromagnetic beams, Opt Lett, 30(2005)198-200.
- Kanseri B, Kandpal H C, Experimental verification of the electromagnetic spectral interference law using a modified version of the Young’s interferometer, Optik, 122(2011)970-973.
- Leppanen L P, Saastamoinen K, Friberg A T, Setala T, Interferometric interpretation for the degree of polarization of classical optical beams, New J Phys, 16(2014)1; doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/16/11/113059.
- Ryabukho V, Lyakin D, Lychagov V, Longitudinal purely spatial coherence of a light field, Opt Spectrosc, 100(2006)724-733.
- Ryabukho V, Lyakin D, Lobachev M, Influence of longitudinal spatial coherence on the signal of a scanning interferometer, Opt Lett, 29(2004)667-669.
- Gori F, Santarsiero M, Piquero G, Borghi R, Mondello A, Simon R, Partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams, J Opt A, 3(2001)1-9.
- Korotkova O, Salem M, Wolf E, Beam conditions for radiation generated by an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model source, Opt Lett, 29(2004)1173-1175.
- Roychowdhury H, Korotkova O, Realizability conditions for electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model sources, Opt Commun, 249(2005)379-385.
- Shirai T, Korotkova O, Wolf E, A method of generating electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beams, J Opt A, 7(2005)232-237.
- Gori F, Santarsiero M, Borghi R, Ramírez-Sánchez V, Realizability condition for electromagnetic Schell-model sources, J Opt Soc Am A, 25(2008)1016-1021.
- Wang F, Wu G, Liu X, Zhu S, Cai Y, Experimental measurement of the beam parameters of an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model source, Opt Lett, 36(2011)2722-2724.
- Gori F, Santarsiero M, Borghi R, Piquero G, Use of van Cittert-Zernike theorem for partially polarized sources, Opt Lett, 25(2000)1291-1293.
- Tervo J, Setälä T, Turunen J, Friberg A T, Van Cittert–Zernike theorem with Stokes parameters, Opt Lett, 38(2013)2301-2303.
- Roychowdhury H, Wolf E, Determination of the electric cross-spectral density matrix of a random electromagnetic beam, Opt Commun, 226(2003)57-60.
- Divitt S, Lapin Z J, Novotny L, Measuring coherence functions using non-parallel double slits, Opt Exp, 22(2014)8277-8290.
- Santarsiero M, Borghi R, Measuring spatial coherence by using a reversed-wavefront Young interferometer, Opt Lett, 31(2006)861-863.
- Partanen H, Turunen J, Tervo J, Coherence measurement with digital micromirror device, Opt Lett, 39(2014)1034-1037.
- Sharma K A, Costello G, Vélez-Juárez E, Brown T G, Alonso M A, Measuring vector field correlations using diffraction, Opt Exp, 26(2018)8301-8313.
- Singh R K , Vinu R V, Sharma A M, Recovery of complex valued objects from two-point intensity correlation measurement, Appl Phys Lett, 104(2014)111108; doi.org/10.1063/1.4869123
- Agarwal G S, Banerji J, Spatial coherence and information entropy in optical vortex fields, Opt Lett, 27(2002)800-802.
- Liu Y, Luo S, Puri J, Gao Z, Experimental measurement of the generalized Stokes parameters of a radially polarized random electromagnetic beam, J Electromagn Anal Appl, 8(2016)109-114.
- Guo L, Tang Z, Liang C, Tan Z, Intensity and spatial correlation properties of tightly focused partially coherent radially polarized vortex beams, Opt Laser Technol, 43(2011)895-898.
- Cai Y, Chen Y, Wang F, Generation and propagation of partially coherent beams with nonconventional correlation functions: a review, J Opt Soc Am A, 31(2014)2083-2096.
- Joshi S, Khan S N, Manisha, Senthilkumaran P, Kanseri B, Coherence-induced polarization effects in vector vortex beams, Opt Lett, 45(2020)4815-4818.
- Shirai T, Chapter 1 – Modern aspects of intensity interferometry with classical light, Prog Optics, 62(2017)1-72.
- Brown R H, Twiss R Q, Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light, Nature, 177(1956)27-29.
- Volkov S N, James D F V, Shirai T, Wolf E, Intensity fluctuations and the degree of cross-polarization in stochastic electromagnetic beams, J Opt A: Pure Appl Opt, 10(2008)1; doi.org/10.1088/1464-4258/10/5/055001
- Shirai T, Wolf E, Correlations between intensity fluctuations in stochastic electromagnetic beams of any state of coherence and polarization, Opt Commun, 272(2007)289-292.
- Hassinen T, Tervo J, Friberg A T, Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect with electromagnetic waves, Opt Express, 19(2011)15188-15195.
- Dong Z, Huang Z, Chen Y, Wang F, Cai Y, Measuring complex correlation matrix of partially coherent vector light via a generalized Hanbury Brown–Twiss experiment, Opt Express, 28(2020)20634-20644.
- Kanseri B, K R S, Experimental observation of the polarization coherence theorem, Opt Lett, 44(2019)159-162.
- Kanseri B, Singh H K, Development and characterization of a source having tunable partial spatial coherence and polarization features, Optik, 206(2020)163747; doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2019.163747.
- Wolf, E, Non-cosmological redshifts of spectral lines, Nature, 326(1987)363-365.
- Wolf E, Invariance of the spectrum of light on propagation, Phys Rev Lett, 56(1986)1370-1372.
- James D F V, Wolf E, Spectral changes produced in Young’s interference experiment, Opt Commun, 81(1991)150-154.
- Wolf E, James D F V, Correlation-induced spectral changes, Rep Prog Phys, 59(1996)771-818.
- Qian X-F, Eberly J H, Entanglement and classical polarization states, Opt Lett, 36(2011)4110-4112.
- Eberly J H, Qian X-F, Vamivakas A N, Polarization coherence theorem, Optica, 4(2017)1113-1114.
- Qian X-F, Malhotra T, Vamivakas A N, Eberly J H, Coherence constraints and the last hidden optical coherence, Phys Rev Lett, 117(2016)153901; doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.153901.
- Zela F D, Hidden coherences and two-state systems, Optica, 5(2018)243-250.
- Qian X-F, Vamivakas A N, Eberly J H, Entanglement limits duality and vice versa, Optica, 5(2018)942-947.
- Goodman J W, Statistical Optics, (Wiley), 2000.
- Martienssen W, Spiller W E, Coherence and fluctuations in light beams, Am J Phys, 32(1964)919-926.
- Iwai T, Asakura T, Speckle reduction in coherent information processing, Proc IEEE, 84(1996)765-781.
- Wang L, Tschudi T, Halldo ́rsson T, Pétursson P R, Speckle reduction in laser projection systems by diffractive optical elements, Appl Opt, 37(1998)1770-1775.
- Asakura T, Spatial coherence of laser light passed through rotating ground glass, Opto-electronics, 2 (1970)115-123.
- Rodenburg B, Mirhosseini M, Magaña-Loaiza O S, Boyd R W, Experimental generation of an optical field with arbitrary spatial coherence properties, J Opt Soc Am B, 31(2014)A51-A55.
- Efimov A, Spatial coherence at the output of multimode optical fibers, Opt Express, 22(2014)15578-15588.
- Liu, J -P, Tahara T, Hayasaki Y, Poon T-C, Incoherent digital holography: A review, Appl Sci, 8(2018)143; doi.org/10.3390/app8010143.
- Kim J, Miller D T, Kim E K, Oh S, Oh J, Milner T E, Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source, J Biomed Opt, 10(2005)064034; doi.org/10.1117/1.2138031.
- Fercher A F, Drexler W, Hitzenberger C K, Lasser T, Optical coherence tomography – principles and applications, Rep Prog Phys, 66(2003)239-303.
- Zhao Y, Chen Z, Ding Z, Ren H, Nelson J S, Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical hilbert transformation, Opt Lett, 27(2002)98-100.
- Baleine E, Dogariu A, Variable coherence tomography, Opt Lett, 29(2004)1233-1235.
- Katz O, Heidmann P, Fink M, Gigan S, Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations, Nat Photon, 8(2014)784-790.
- Gustafsson M G L, Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy, J Microsc, 198(2000)82-87.
- Heintzmann R, Cremer C G, Laterally modulated excitation microscopy: improvement of resolution by using a diffraction grating, Proc SPIE, 3568(1999)3568; doi.org/10.1117/12.336833.
- Baleine E, Dogariu A, Agarwal G S, Correlated imaging with shaped spatially partially coherent light, Opt Lett, 31(2006)2124-2126.
- Gustafsson M G L, Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: Wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution, Proc Natl Acad Sci(USA), 102(2005)13081-13086.
- Kim Y L, Liu Y, Turzhitsky V M, Roy H K, Wali R K, Subramanian H, Pradhan P, Backman V, Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer screening, J Biomed Opt, 11(2006)041125; doi.org/10.1117/1.2236292.
- Oh J E, Cho Y W, Scarcelli G, Kim Y H, Sub-Rayleigh imaging via speckle illumination, Opt Lett, 38(2013)682-684.
- Kim M K, Park C H, Rodriguez C, Park Y K, Cho Y H, Super-resolution imaging with optical fluctuation using speckle patterns illumination, Sci Rep, 5(2015)16525; doi.org/10.1038/srep16525.
- Ströhl F, Kaminski C F, Frontiers in structured illumination microscopy, Optica, 3(2016)667-677.
- Dertinger T, Colyer R, Iyer G, Weiss S, Enderlein J, Fast, background-free, 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI), Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 106(2009)22287-22292.
- Classen A, von Zanthier J, Scully M O, Agarwal G S, Superresolution via structured illumination quantum correlation microscopy, Optica, 4(2017)580-587.
- Schwartz O, Levitt N M, Tenne R, Itzhakov S, Deutsch Z, Oron D, Superresolution microscopy with quantum emitters, Nano Lett, 13(2013)5832-5836.
- Tenne R, Rossman U, Rephael B, Israel Y, Ptaszek AK, Lapkiewicz R, Silberberg Y, Oron D, Super-resolution enhancement by quantum image scanning microscopy, Nat Photonics, 13(2019)116-122.
- Strekalov D V, Sergienko A V, Klyshko D N, Shih Y H, Observation of two-photon “ghost” interference and diffraction, Phys Rev Lett, 74(1995)3600-3603.
- Pittman T B, Shih Y H, Strekalov D V, Sergienko A V, Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement, Phys Rev A, 52(1995)R3429 – R3432.
- Valencia A, Scarcelli G, D’Angelo M, Shih Y, Two-photon imaging with thermal light, Phys Rev Lett, 94(2005)063601; doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.063601.
- Erkmen B I, Shapiro J H, Ghost imaging: from quantum to classical to computational, Adv Opt Photon, 2(2010)405-450.
- Cai Y, Zhu S Y, Ghost imaging with incoherent and partially coherent light radiation, Phys Rev E, 71(2005)056607; doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.71.056607.
- Thiel C, Bastin T, Martin J, Solano E, von Zanthier J, Agarwal G S, Quantum imaging with incoherent photons, Phys Rev Lett, 99(2007)133603; doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.133603.
- Cheng J, Han S, Incoherent coincidence imaging and its applicability in x-ray diffraction, Phys Rev Lett, 92(2004)093903; doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.093903.
- Classen A, Ayyer K, Chapman H N, Röhlsberger R, von Zanthier J, Incoherent diffractive imaging via intensity correlations of hard x rays, Phys Rev Lett, 119(2017)053401; doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.053401.
- Tatarskii V I, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium, (McGraw-Hill), 1961.
- Beran M J, Propagation of the mutual coherence function through random media, J Opt Soc Am, 56(1966)1475-1480.
- Taylor L S, Decay of mutual coherence in turbulent media, J Opt Soc Am, 57(1967)304-308.
- Fante R L, The effect of source temporal coherence on light scintillations in weak turbulence, J Opt Soc Am, 69(1979)71-73.
- Fante R L, Intensity fluctuations of an optical wave in a turbulent medium; effect of source coherence, Opt Acta, 28(1981)1203-1207.
- Banach V A, Buldakov V M, Mironov V L, Intensity fluctuations of a partially coherent light beam in a turbulent atmosphere, Opt Spectrosc, 54(1983)626-629.
- Banakh V A, Buldakov V M, Effect of the initial degree of spatial coherence of a light beam on intensity fluctuations in a turbulent atmosphere, Opt Spectrosc, 54(1983)423-427.
- Wu J, Boardman A D, Coherence length of a Gaussian-Schell beam and atmospheric turbulence, J Mod Opt, 38(1991)1355-1363.
- Zou Z, Wang P, Chen W, Li A, Tian H, Guo L, Average capacity of a UWOC system with partially coherent Gaussian beams propagating in weak oceanic turbulence, J Opt Soc Am A, 36(2019)1463-1474.
- Wu J, Propagation of a Gaussian-Schell beam through turbulent media, J Mod Opt, 37(1990)671-684.
- Andrews L C, Phillips R L, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, (SPIE Press), 1998.
- Korotkova O, Andrews L C, Phillips R L, Model for a partially coherent Gaussian beam in atmospheric turbulence with application in Lasercom, Opt Eng, 43(2004)330-341.
- Smith T A, Shih Y, Turbulence-free double-slit interferometer, Phys Rev Lett, 120(2018)063606; doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.063606.
- Gbur G, Wolf E, Spreading of partially coherent beams in random media, J Opt Soc Am A, 19(2002)1592-1598.
- Dogariu A, Amarande S, Propagation of partially coherent beams: turbulence-induced degradation, Opt Lett, 28(2003)10-12.
- Voelz D, Fitzhenry K, Pseudo-partially coherent beam for free-space laser communication, Proc SPIE, 5550(2005)Free-Space Laser Communications IV; doi.org/10.1117/12.562566.
- Gbur G, Korotkova O, Angular spectrum representation for the propagation of arbitrary coherent and partially coherent beams through atmospheric turbulence, J Opt Soc Am A, 24(2007)745-752.
- Shirai T, Dogariu A, Wolf E, Mode analysis of spreading of partially coherent beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence, J Opt Soc Am A, 20(2003)1094-1102.
- Ponomarenko S A, Greffet J J, Wolf E, The diffusion of partially coherent beams in turbulent media, Opt Commun, 208(2002)1-8.
- Eyyuboğlu T, Baykal Y, Cai Y, Complex degree of coherence for partially coherent general beams in turbulent atmosphere, J Opt Soc Am A, 24(2007)2891-2901.
- Eyyuboğlu T, Baykal Y, Cai Y, Degree of polarization for partially coherent general beams in turbulent atmosphere, Appl Phys B, 89(2007)91-97.
- Baykal Y, Average transmittance in turbulence for partially coherent sources, Opt Commun, 231(2004)129-136.
- Schulz T J, Optimal beams for propagation through random media, Opt Lett, 30(2005)1093-1095.
- Salem M, Korotkova O, Dogariu A, Wolf E, Polarization changes in partially coherent electromagnetic beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere, Waves Random Complex Media, 14(2004)513-523.
- Ricklin JC, Davidson FM, Atmospheric optical communication with a Gaussian-Schell beam, J Opt Soc Am A, 20(2003)856-866.
- Gbur G, Partially coherent beam propagation in atmospheric turbulence, J Opt Soc Am A, 31(2014)2038-2045.
- Gu Y, Gbur G, Reduction of turbulence-induced scintillation by nonuniformly polarized beam arrays, Opt Lett, 37(2012)1553-1555.
- Kanseri B, Effects of phase conjugation on electromagnetic optical fields propagating in free space, J Optics, 19(2017)035602; doi.org/10.1088/2040-8986/aa52d5.
- Gao W, Changes of polarization of light beams on propagation through tissue, Opt Commun, 260(2006)749-754.
- Jin Y, Hu M, Luo M, Luo Y, Mi X, Zou C, Zhou L, Shu C, Zhu X, He J, Ouyang S, Wen W, Beam wander of a partially coherent airy beam in oceanic turbulence, J Opt Soc Am A, 35(2018)1457-1464.
- Avramov-Zamurovic S, Nelson C, Hyde M, Experimental study: underwater propagation of super-Gaussian and multi-Gaussian Schell-model partially coherent beams with varying degrees of spatial coherence, OSA Continuum, 2(2019)450-459.
- Cai Y, Korotkova O, Eyyuboğlu H T, Baykal Y, Active laser radar systems with stochastic electromagnetic beams in turbulent atmosphere, Opt Express, 16(2008)15834-15846.
- Peng X, Liu L, Yu J, Liu X, Cai Y, Baykal Y, Li W, Propagation of a radially polarized twisted Gaussian Schell-model beam in turbulent atmosphere, J Opt, 18(2016)125601; doi.org/10.1088/2040-8978/18/12/125601.
- Ji X, Chen X, Lü B, Spreading and directionality of partially coherent Hermite-Gaussian beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence, J Opt Soc Am A, 25(2008)21-28.
- Cai Y, Lin Q, Eyyuboğlu H T, Baykal Y, Average irradiance and polarization properties of a radially or azimuthally polarized beam in a turbulent atmosphere, Opt Express, 16(2008)7665-7673.
- Gu Y, Gbur G, Measurement of atmospheric turbulence strength by vortex beam, Opt Commun, 283(2010)1209-1212.
- Li Y, Cui Z, Han Y, Hui Y, Channel capacity of orbital-angular momentum-based wireless communication systems with partially coherent elegant Laguerre–Gaussian beams in oceanic turbulence, J Opt Soc Am A, 36(2019)471-477.
- Chen B, Chen Z, Pu J, Propagation of partially coherent Bessel-Gaussian beams in turbulent atmosphere, Opt Laser Technol, 40(2008)820-827.
- Oppel S, Wiegner R, Agarwal GS, von Zanthier J, Directional super radiant emission from statistically independent incoherent nonclassical and classical sources, Phys Rev Lett, 113(2014)263606; doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.263606.
- Wolf E, Solution of the phase problem in the theory of structure determination of crystals from x-ray diffraction experiments, Phys Rev Lett, 103(2009)075501; /doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.075501
- Wolf E, Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data, Opt Commun, 1(1969)153-156.
- Robb G, Firth W, Collective atomic recoil lasing with a partially coherent pump, Phys Rev Lett, 99(2007)253601; doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.253601.
- Kong D, Luo M, Wang Z, Lin Q, Coherence of cold atoms trapped by partially coherent light, Opt Commun, 434(2019)60-64.
- Zhao C, Cai Y, Trapping two types of particles using a focused partially coherent elegant Laguerre–Gaussian beam, Opt Lett, 36(2011)2251-2253.
- Liang C, Mi C, Wang F, Zhao C, Cai Y, Ponomarenko S A, Vector optical coherence lattices generating controllable far-field beam profiles, Opt Express, 25(2017)9872-9885.
- Cai Y, Peschel U, Second-harmonic generation by an astigmatic partially coherent beam, Opt Express, 15(2007)15480-15492.
- Zhao X, Visser T D, Agrawal G P, Controlling the degree of polarization of partially coherent electromagnetic beams with lenses, Opt Lett, 43(2018)2344-2347.
- Zhao X, Visser T D, Agrawal G P, Degree of polarization in the focal region of a lens, J Opt Soc Am A, 35(2018)1518-1522.
- Joshi R, Kanseri B, Degree of polarization of a spectral electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beam passing through 2-f and 4-f lens systems, Asian J Phys, 28(2019)907-919.
- Foley J T, Wolf E, The phenomenon of spectral switches as a new effect in singular optics with polychromatic light, J Opt Soc Am A, 19(2002)2510-2516.
- Kandpal H C, Vaishya J S, Experimental study of coherence properties of light fields in the region of superposition in Young’s interference experiment, Opt Commun, 186(2000)15-20.
- Pu J, Nemoto S, Spectral shifts and spectral switches in diffraction of partially coherent light by a circular aperture, IEEE J Quant Electron, 36(2000)1407-1411.
- Kanseri B, Polarization assisted data encoding and transmission using coherence based spectral anomalies, J Optics, 15(2013)055407; doi.org/10.1088/2040-8978/15/5/055407.
- Glauber R J, The quantum theory of optical coherence, Phys Rev, 130(1963)2529-2539.
- Jha A K, Boyd R W, Spatial two-photon coherence of the entangled field produced by down-conversion using a partially spatially coherent pump beam, Phys Rev A, 81(2010)013828; doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.81.013828
- Defienne H, Gigan S, Spatially entangled photon-pair generation using a partial spatially coherent pump beam, Phys Rev A, 99(2019)053831; oi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.99.053831.
- Kanseri B, Sharma P, Effect of partially coherent pump on the spatial and spectral profiles of down converted photons, J Opt Soc Am B, 37(2020)505-512.
- Zhang W, Fickler R, Giese E, Chen L, Boyd R W, Influence of pump coherence on the generation of position-momentum entanglement in optical parametric down-conversion, Opt Express, 27(2019)20745-20753.
- Lund A P, Ralph T C, Haselgrove H L, Fault-tolerant linear optical quantum computing with small-amplitude coherent states, Phys Rev Lett, 100(2008)030503; doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.030503
- Shih Y, An Introduction to Quantum Optics, (CRC Press), 2011.
|Asian Journal of Physics||Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 673-680|
Effect of pixel size and pixel fill-factor of a pixelated device on the holographically shaped beam
Nagendra Kumar and Bosanta R Boruah
Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781 039, Assam, India
Pixelated light modulating devices, such as liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM), provide a dynamic means to generate user defined wavefronts. This is done using the principle of computer-generated holography with the LCSLM acting as the hologram. However, the pixels of any pixelated device have a finite fill-factor which is often less than hundred percent. The pixel fill-factor may not only affect the diffraction efficiency of the generated beam but also may affect the accuracy of the generated wavefront. In this paper, we investigate theoretically and numerically, how this fill- factor of a pixelated device implementing a hologram, can affect the accuracy in beam shaping. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Wavefront, Spatial light modulator, Pixelated device, Hologram, Beam shaping, Fill-factor.
- Hariharan P, Optical Holography: Principles, techniques and applications, (Cambridge University Press), 1996.
- Lee W.-H, Computer-generated holograms: Techniques and applications. Progr Optics, 16(1978)119-232.
- Neil M A A, Booth M, Wilson T, Dynamic wave-front generation for the characterization and testing of optical systems, Opt Lett, 23(1998)849-1851.
- Neil M, Wilson T, Juskaitis R, A wavefront generator for complex pupil function synthesis and point spread function engineering, J Microsc, 197(2000)219-223.
- Boruah B R, Dynamic manipulation of a laser beam using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator, Am J Phys,77(2009)331-336.
- Efron U (ed) Spatial light modulator technology: materials, devices, and applications, (CRC Press), 1994.
- Amako J, Miura H, Sonehara T, Wave-front control using liquid-crystal devices, Appl Opt, 32(1993)4323-4329.
- Love G D, Wave-front correction and production of Zernike modes with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator, Appl Opt, 36(1997)1517-1524.
- Ostrovsky A S, Rickenstorff-Parrao C, Arrizon V, Generation of the perfect optical vortex using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator, Opt Lett, 38(2013)534-536.
- Dudley A, Majola N, Chetty N, Forbes A, Implementing digital holograms to create and measure complex-planeoptical fields, Am J Phys, 84(2016)106-112.
- Forbes A, Dudley A, McLaren M, Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators, Adv Opt Photon, 8(2016)200-227.
- Cofre A, Garcia-Martinez P, Vargas A, Moreno I, Vortex beam generation and other advanced optics experiments reproduced with a twisted-nematic liquid-crystal display with limited phase modulation, Eur J Phys, 38(2017)014005; doi.org/10.1088/1361-6404/38/1/014005.
- Guo K, Bian Z, Dong S, Nanda P, Wang Y M, Zheng G, Microscopy illumination engineering using a low-costliquid crystal display, Biomed Opt Express, 6(2015)574-579.
- Bhebhe N, Williams P A, Rosales-Guzman C, Rodriguez-Fajardo V, Forbes A, A vector holographic optical trap,Sci Rep, 8(2018)17387; doi. 10.1038/s41598-018-35889-0.
- Kelly D P, Hennelly B M, Pandey N, Naughton T J, Rhodes W T, Resolution limits in practical digital holographic systems, Opt Eng, 48(2009)095801; doi.10.1117/1.3212678.
- Goodman J W, Introduction to Fourier optics, (Roberts and Company Publishers), 2005.
- Noll R J, Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence, J Opt Soc Am, 66(1976)207-211.
- Mahajan V N, Zernike circle polynomials and optical aberrations of systems with circular pupils,Appl Opt, 33(1994) 8121-8124.
|Asian Journal of Physics||Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 681-689|
iLens interferometer for probing nanoscale plasma dynamics
Pooja Munjal, Vishavdeep Vashisht, and Kamal P Singh
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Mohali, Sector 81, SAS Nagar, Punjab, India
A plasma is created in diverse situations from lightning in the atmosphere to inside a flame, and it possesses intriguing properties, with many applications in precision material processing. Here, we demonstrate a collinear single interference lens (iLens) based interferometer setup to study the nanoscale dynamical properties of plasma in real-time. We present a detailed theoretical analysis of Gaussian beam propagation through our iLens interferometer using ABCD matrices and achieve conditions for formation of high contrast fringes. We show a self-calibration procedure for nanoscale measurement in linear regime with high stability. Taking ethanol flame as an example of a plasma medium, we quantitatively measure variation in its optical density, refractive index, and temperature distribution by raster scanning the flame in the iLens cavity. Our simple yet precise technique will enable probing intriguing properties of plasma created by intense femtosecond pulse.© Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: iLens interferometer, Gaussian beam, Plasma, Flame, ABCD matrix, Nanoscale dynamics
- Walker M, Gröger M, Schlüter K, Mosler B, A bright spark: Open teaching of science using Faraday’s lectures on candles, J Chem Edu, 85(2008)59-62.
- Faraday M, The chemical history of a candle: a course of lectures delivered before a juvenile audience at the Royal institution/by Michael Faraday ; edited by William Crookes. Chatto and Windus, London, (1886)1791-1867; https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/16017860.
- Van Maaren A, Thung D S, DeGoey L R H, Measurement of flame temperature and adiabatic burning velocity of methane/air mixtures, Combust Sci Technol, 96(1994)327-344.
- Born M, Wolf E, Principles of optics: electromagnetic theory of propagation, interference, and diffraction of light, (Pergamon Press N Y), 2013.
- Thakur M, Vyas A L,Shakher C, Measurement of temperature and temperature profile of an axisymmetric gaseous flames using Lau phase interferometer with linear gratings, Opt Lasers Eng, 36(2001)373-380.
- Shakher C, Nirala A K, A review on refractive index and temperature profile measurements using laser-based interferometric techniques, Opt Lasers Eng, 31(1999)455-491.
- Shirai T, Phase difference enhancement with classical intensity interferometry, Opt Commun, 380(2016)239-244.
- Kleine H,Grönig H, Takayama K, Simultaneous shadow, schlieren and interferometric visualization of compressible flows, Opt Lasers Eng, 44(2006)170-189.
- Yan D, Cha S S, Single-path interferometer for measuring fluid flows in real time with low-quality optics, Opt Lasers Eng, 29(1998)33-40.
- Reuss D L, Temperature measurements in a radially symmetric flame using holographic interferometry, Combust Flame, 49(1983)207-219.
- Montgomery P, Reuss G D L, Effects of refraction on axisymmetric flame temperatures measured by holographic interferometry, Appl Opt, 21(1982)1373-1380.
- Sharma S, Sheoran G, Shakher C, Digital holographic interferometry for measurement of temperature in axisymmetric flames, Appl Opt, 51(2012)3228-3235.
- Barakat N, El-Ghandoor H, Hamed A M, Diab S, Refractive index profiling across a candle flame using speckle techniques, Exper Fluids, 16(1993)42-45.
- Bergmann V, Meier W, Wolff D, Stricker W, Application of spontaneous Raman and Rayleigh scattering and 2D LIF for the characterization of a turbulent CH4/H2/N2 jet diffusion flame, Appl Phys B, 66(1998)489-502.
- Brackmann C, Bood J, Bengtsson P-E, Seeger T, Schenk M, Leipertz A, Simultaneous vibrational and pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for temperature and multispecies concentration measurements demonstrated in sooting flames, Appl Opt, 41(2002)564-572.
- Desse J-M, Picart P, Tankam P, Digital three-color holographic interferometry for flow analysis, Opt Express, 16(2008)5471-5480.
- Sahu K B, Kundu A, Ganguly R, Datta A, Effects of fuel type and equivalence ratios on the flickering of triple flames, Combust Flame, 156(2009)484-493.
- Dietrich D L, Ross H D, Shu Y, Chang P, T’ien J S , Candle flames in non-buoyant atmospheres, Combust Sci Technol, 156(2000)1-24.
- Sato H, Amagai K, Arai M, Flickering frequencies of diffusion flames observed under various gravity fields, Proc Combust Inst, 28(2000)1981-1987.
- Francon M, Optical Interferometry, (Academic Press N Y), 1966
- Steel W H, Interferometry 2nd edn, (Cambridge Univ Press, London), 1983.
- Hernández G, Fabry-Perot interferometers, (Cambridge Univ Press, London),1988.
- Hariharan P, Basics of Interferometry, 2nd edn, (Academic Press), 2007.
- Langenbeck P, Interferometry for Precious Measurements, (SPIE Press Bellingham, USA), 2014.
- Munjal P, Singh K P, A single-lens universal interferometer: Towards a class of frugal devices, Appl Phys Lett, 115(2019)111102; doi.org/10.1063/1.5108587.
- Munjal P, Singh K P, Optically probing picometer resolved photo-dynamics of solid surfaces, URSI Radio Sci Bull, 2019(2019)12-16.
- Arain M A, Mueller G, On the interference of two Gaussian beams and their ABCD matrix representation. Opt Express, 17(2009)19181-19189.
- Yura H T, Hanson S G, Optical beam wave propagation through complex optical systems, J Opt Soc Am A, 4(1987)1931-1948.
- Pei S, Xu S, Cui F, Pan Q, Cao Z, Propagation of a Bessel–Gaussian beam in a gradient-index medium, Appl Opt, 58(2019)920-926.
- Kogelnik H, On the propagation of Gaussian beams of light through lenslike media including those with a loss or gain variation, Appl Opt, 4(1965)1562-1569.
- Grecco H E, Martínez O E, Calibration of subnanometer motion with picometer accuracy, Appl Opt, 41(2002)6646-6650.
- Hamed A M, Sharaf F, El-Ghandoor H, Study of the refractive index distribution of air around a candle flame,Opt Laser Technol, 25(1993)113-116.
|Asian Journal of Physics||Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 691-698|
Single-channel color image encryption and watermarking using phase-truncated gyrator transform
Muhammad Rafiq Abuturab
Optical Information Science Research Center (OISRC), Patna- 800 014, India
Department of Physics, Maulana Azad College of Engineering and Technology, Patna- 801 113, India
This paper presents a new single-channel color image encryption and watermarking using phase-truncated gyrator transform. In this system, an input color image is segregated into R, G and B channels. They are modulated by multiplying three independent random phase masks. The three modulated color channels are independently gyrator transformed and then combined into one gray image by using convolution. The convoluted image is then amplitude- and phase- truncated to produce first encrypted image and first decryption phase key. Now the first encrypted image is gyrator transformed and then again phase- and amplitude- truncated to generate second encrypted image and second decryption phase key. The second encrypted image is fused with host image to get watermarked image. A single-channel image encryption method makes the proposed system compact and feasible. The angles of GT offer remarkably sensitive keys. The proposed optoelectronic design does not suffer from optical misalignment problem. Numerical simulations show the feasibility and security of the proposed system. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Random phase masks, Asymmetric cryptosystem, Gyrator transform.
- Alfalou A, Brosseau C, Optical image compression and encryption methods, Adv Opt Photon, 1(2009)589-636.
- Refregier P, Javidi B, Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding, Opt Lett, 20(1995)767-769.
- Unnikrishnan G, Joseph J, Singh K, Optical encryption bydouble-random phase encoding in the fractional Fourier domain, Opt Lett, 25(2000)887-889.
- Situ G, Zhang J, Double random-phase encoding in the Fresnel domain, Opt Lett, 29(2004)1584-1586.
- Rodrigo J A, Alieva T, Calvo M L, Application of gyrator transform for image processing, Opt Commun, 278(2007) 279-284.
- Liu Z, Guo Q, Xu L, Ahmad M A, Liu S, Double image encryption by using iterative random binary encoding in gyrator domains, Opt Express,
- Abuturab M R, Color image security system using double random-structured phase encoding in gyrator transform domain, Appl Opt, 51(2012)3006-3016.
- Abuturab M R, Securing color information using Arnold transform in gyrator transform domain, Opt Lasers Eng, 50(2012)772-779.
- Liu Z, Li S, Liu W, Wang Y, Liu S, Image encryption algorithm by using fractional Fourier transform and pixel scrambling operation based on double random phase encoding, Opt Lasers Eng, 51(2013)8-14.
- Chen L, Zhao D, Optical color image encryption by wavelength multiplexing and lensless Fresnel transform holograms, Opt Express, 14(2006)8552-8560.
- Joshi M, Shakher C, Singh K, Color image encryption and decryption using fractional Fourier transform, Opt Commun, 279(2007)35-42.
- Liu Z, Dai J, Sun X, Liu S, Color image encryption by using the rotation of color vector in Hartley transform domains, Opt Lasers Eng, 48(2010)800-805.
- Liu Z, Xu L, Liu T, Chen H, Li P, Lin C, Liu S, Color image encryption by using Arnold transform and color-blend operation in discrete cosine transform domains, Opt Commun, 284(2011)123-128.
- Abuturab M R, Securing color image using discrete cosine transform in gyrator transform domain structured-phase encoding, Opt Lasers Eng, 50(2012)1383-1390.
- Alfalou A, Brosseau C, Abdallah N,Jridi M, Assessing the performance of a method of simultaneous compression and encryption of multiple images and its resistance against various attacks, Opt Express, 21(2013)8025-8043.
- Abuturab M R, Ahmad T A, Color information encoding based on phase-truncated gyrator transform domain, Int J Commun Network Syst Sci, 7(2014)114- 121.
- Qin W, X Peng, Asymmetric cryptosystem based on phase-truncated Fourier transforms, Opt Lett, 35(2010)118-120.
- Wang X, Zhao D, A special attack on the asymmetric cryptosystem based on phase-truncated Fourier transforms, Opt Commun, 285(2012)1078-1081.
- Wang X, Zhao D, Security enhancement of a phase-truncation based image encryption algorithm, Appl Opt, 50(2011) 6645-6651.
- Abuturab M R, Securing multiple color information by optical coherent superposition based spiral phase encoding, Opt Lasers Eng, 56(2014)152-163.
- Liu W, Liu Z, Liu S, Asymmetric cryptosystem using random binary phase modulation based on mixture retrieval type of Yang–Gu algorithm, Opt Lett, 38(2013)1651-1653.
- Abuturab M. R, Generalized Arnold map-based optical multiple color-image encoding in gyrator transform domain, Opt Commun, 343(2015)157-171.
- Sui L, Liu B, Wang Q, Li Y, Liang J, Double-image encryption based on Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm and high dimension chaotic system in gyrator domain, Opt Commun, 354(2015)184-196.
- Abuturab M R, Fully phase multiple information encoding based on superposition of two beams and Fresnel-transform domain, Opt Commun, 356(2015)306- 324.
- Sui L, Zhou B, Ning X, Tian A, Optical multiple-image encryption based on the chaotic structured phase masks under the illumination of a vortex beam in the gyrator domain, Opt Express, 24(2016)499-515. :
- Abuturab M R, Multiple color-image authentication system using HSI color-space and QR decomposition in gyrator transform domains, J Mod Opt, 63(2016)1035-1050.
- Abuturab M R, Asymmetric multiple information cryptosystem based on chaotic spiral phase mask and random spectrum decomposition, Opt Laser Technol, 98(2018)298-308.
- Quadri S Z A, Multiple-information security system using spherical wave and chaotic random phase mask encoding, Opt Eng, 57(2018)093103; doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.57.9.093103
- Abuturab M R, Asymmetric multiple image encryption using wavelet transform and gyrator transform,OSA Continuum, 1(2018)1111-1130.
|Asian Journal of Physics||Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 773-785|
Off-axis speckle holography for looking through a barrier: A review
Abhijit Roy1, Rakesh Kumar Singh2 and Maruthi M Brundavanam1
1Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721 302, (W B), India
2Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi-221 005, India
This article is dedicated to Prof FTS Yu for his significant contributions to Optics and Optical information Processing
This paper presents a review on the application of off-axis speckle holography for looking through an optical barrier. In off-axis speckle holography technique, a titled reference speckle pattern is superposed with an object speckle pattern to retrieve the phase information of the Fourier spectrum of the object embedded into the speckles. The two-point intensity correlation technique along with the phase retrieved utilizing this simple experimental approach, are used to recover the amplitude, phase and polarization information of an object obscured by an optical scattering medium, employing the van Cittert-Zernike theorem. In this review article, theoretical details of the technique along with the experimental results on the optimization of this approach for different 2D imaging, such as, the imaging of complex and polarized objects, are presented. It is also shown that the depth resolved imaging of a 3D object can be achieved exploiting the off-axis speckle holography technique.© Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Speckle, Digital holography, Coherence hologram, Coherence and higher order correlations.
- Goodman J W, Statistical Optics, (Wiley N Y), 2015.
- Rigden J D, Gordon E I, Granularity of scattered optical maser light, Proc IRE, 50(1962)2367-2368.
- Oliver B M, Sparkling spots and random diffraction, Proc IEEE, 51(1963)220-221.
- Goodman J W, Some fundamental properties of speckle, J Opt Soc Am, 66(1976)1145-1150.
- Dingel B, Kawata S, Speckle-free image in a laser-diode microscope by using the optical feedback effect, Opt Lett, 18(1993)549-551.
- Von Bally G, Schmidthaus W, Sakowski H, Mette W, Gradient-index optical systems in holographic endoscopy, Appl Opt, 23(1984)1725-1729.
- Helmchen F, Denk W, Deep tissue two-photon microscopy, Nat Methods, 2(2005)932-940.
- Völker A C, Zakharov P, Weber B, Buck F, Scheffold F, Laser speckle imaging with an active noise reduction scheme, Opt Express, 13(2005)9782-9787.
- Stangner T, Zhang H, Dahlberg T, Wiklund K, Andersson M, Step-by-step guide to reduce spatial coherence of laser light using a rotating ground glass diffuser, Appl Opt, 56(2017)5427-5435.
- Mehta D S, Naik D N, Singh R K, Takeda M, Laser speckle reduction by multimode optical fiber bundle with combined temporal, spatial, and angular diversity, Appl Opt, 51(2012)1894-1904.
- Leith E N, Upatnieks J, Holographic imagery through diffusing media, J Opt Soc Am, 56(1966)523-523.
- Leith E N, Chen C, Chen H, Chen Y, Dilworth D, Lopez J, Rudd J, Sun P C, Valdmanis J, Vossler G, Imaging through scattering media with holography, J Opt Soc Am A, 9(1992)1148-1153.
- Leith E N, Chen C, Chen H, Chen Y, Lopez J, Sun P C, Dilworth D, Imaging through scattering media using spatial incoherence techniques, Opt Lett, 16(1991)1820-1822.
- Yoo K M, Zang Z W, Ahmed S A, Alfano RR, Imaging objects hidden in scattering media using a fluorescence-absorption technique, Opt Lett, 16(1991)1252-1254.
- Indebetouw G, Klysubun P, Imaging through scattering media with depth resolution by use of low-coherence gating in spatiotemporal digital holography, Opt Lett, 25(2000)212-214.
- Sun Y, Moharam M G, Real-time image transmission and interferometry through a distorting medium using two phase conjugators, Appl Opt, 32(1993)1954-1957.
- Hillman T R, Yamauchi T, Choi W, Dasari R R, Feld M S, Park Y, Yaqoob Z, Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media, Sci Rep, 3(2013)1909; doi.org/10.1038/srep01909.
- Vellekoop I M, Mosk A P, Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media, Opt Lett, 32(2007)2309-2311.
- Wan L, Ji W, Singh R K, Chen Z, Pu J, Use of scattering layer as a programmable spectrum filter, IEEE J Quantum Electron, 55(2019)1-6.
- De Aguiar H B, Gigan S, Brasselet S, Polarization recovery through scattering media, Sci Adv, 3(2017)e1600743;doi.10.1126/sciadv.1600743.
- Amitonova L V, Descloux A, Petschulat J, Frosz M H, Ahmed G, Babic F, Jiang X, Mosk A P, Russell P, Pinkse P W H, High-resolution wavefront shaping with a photonic crystal fiber for multimode fiber imaging, Opt Lett, 41(2016)497-500.
- Yu H, Lee P, Lee K, Jang J, Lim J, Jang W, Jeong Y, Park Y, In vivo deep tissue imaging using wavefront shaping optical coherence tomography, J Biomed Opt, 21(2016)101406; doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.21.10.101406.
- Feng S, Kane C, Lee P A, Stone A D, Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media, Phys Rev Lett, 61(1988)834-837.
- Freund I, Rosenbluh M, Feng S, Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media, Phys Rev Lett, 61(1988)2328-2331.
- Bertolotti J, Van Putten E G, Blum C, Lagendijk A, Vos W L, Mosk A P, Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers, Nature, 491(2012)232-234.
- Katz O, Heidmann P, Fink M, Gigan S, Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations, Nat Photonics, 8(2014)784-790.
- Singh R K, Anandraj S M, Das B, Quantitative phase-contrast imaging through a scattering media, Opt Lett, 39(2014)5054-5057.
- Porat A, Andresen E R, Rigneault H, Oron D, Gigan S, Katz O, Widefield lensless imaging through a fiber bundle via speckle correlations, Opt Express, 24(2016)16835-16855.
- Newman J A, Luo Q, Webb K J, Imaging hidden objects with spatial speckle intensity correlations over object position, Phys Rev Lett, 116(2016)073902; doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.073902.
- Marathay A S, Hu Y, Shao L, Phase function of spatial coherence from second-, third-, and fourth-order intensity correlations, Opt Eng, 33(1994)3265-3271.
- Wu T, Katz O, Shao X, Gigan S, Single-shot diffraction-limited imaging through scattering layers via bispectrum analysis, Opt Lett, 41(2016)5003-5006.
- Chen L, Singh R K, Chen Z, Pu J, Phase shifting digital holography with the Hanbury Brown-Twiss approach, Opt Lett, 45(2020)212-215.
- Singh R K, Vinu R V, Anandraj S M, Retrieving complex coherence from two-point intensity correlation using holographic principle, Opt Eng, 53(2014)104102; doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.10.104102.
- Singh R K, Vyas S, Miyamoto Y, Lensless Fourier transform holography for coherence waves, J Opt, 19(2017)115705; doi.org/10.1088/2040-8986/aa8b8f .
- Roy A, Parvin R, Brundavanam M M, Effect of the average number of reference speckles in speckle imaging using off-axis speckle holography, Appl Opt, 58(2019)4538-4545.
- Singh R K, Vinu R V, Anandraj S M, Recovery of complex valued objects from two-point intensity correlation measurement, Appl Phys Lett, 104(2014)111108; doi.org/10.1063/1.4869123.
- Singh D, Chen Z, Pu J, Singh R K, Recovery of polarimetric parameters from non-imaged laser-speckle, J Opt, 20(2018)085605; doi.org/10.1088/2040-8986/aacf2d.
- Roy A, Singh R K, Brundavanam M M, Analysis of polarization speckle for imaging through random birefringent scatterer, Appl Phys Lett, 109(2016)201108; doi.org/10.1063/1.4967881.
- Somkuwar A S, Das B, Vinu R V, Park Y, Singh R K, Holographic imaging through a scattering layer using speckle interferometry, J Opt Soc Am A, 34(2017)1392-1399.
- Takeda M, Ina H, Kobayashi S, Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry, J Opt Soc Am, 72(1982)156-160.
|Asian Journal of Physics||Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 797-803|
Convolutional neural network based fringe pattern denoising algorithm
D Bhatt1, R Kulkarni2, and P K Rastogi3
1Department of Electrical Engineering , National Institute of Technology Surat -395 007, India.
2Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-721 009, Assam, India.
3Applied Computing and Mechanics Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland.
Fringe pattern denoising is a crucial pre-processing operation in the fringe analysis procedure for obtaining reliable quantitative measurements in an optical interferometric setup. A convolutional neural network based fringe denoising algorithm is proposed considering a simple model architecture. The network training is performed using fringe patterns generated with random phase profiles. The corresponding noisy fringe patterns are generated using multiplicative speckle noise model in order to simulate the practical fringe pattern recording process. The algorithm is designed such that arbitrary sized fringe pattern denoising can be performed. Simulation and experimental results are provided for performance comparison of the proposed algorithm with some representative State-of-Art techniques. The results substantiate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in practical applications. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Fringe pattern denoising, Convolutional neural network, Speckle noise, Optical interferometry.
- Rastogi P (ed), Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques, (Wiley N Y), 2001.
- Kulkarni R, Rastogi P, Single and Multicomponent Digital Optical Signal Analysis, (IOP Publishing), 2017.
- Servin M J, Quiroga A J, Padilla M, Fringe Pattern Analysis for Optical Metrology: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications, (Wiley-VCH), 2014.
- Yu Q, Sun X, Liu X, Spin filtering with curve windows for interferometric fringe patterns, Proc SPIE, 4537(2002)358-361.
- Yu Q, Sun X, Liu X, Removing speckle noise from speckle fringe patterns by spin filtering with curved surface windows, Proc SPIE, 4664(2002)73-79.
- Cheng L, Tang C, Yan S, Chen X, Wang L,Wang B,New fourth order partial differential equations for filtering in electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringes, Opt Commun, 284(2011)5549-5555.
- Mi Q-h, Yan S, Tang C, Numerous possible oriented partial differential equations and investigation of their performance for optical interferometry fringes denoising, Appl Opt, 52(2013)8439-8450.
- Xu W, Tang C, Gu F, Cheng J, Combination of oriented partial differential equation and shearlet transform for denoising in electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe patterns, Appl Opt, 56(2017)2843-2850.
- Kerr D, Mendoza-Santoyo F, Tyrer J R, Manipulation of the Fourier components of speckle fringe patterns as part of an interferometric analysis process, J Mod Opt, 36(1989)195-203.
- Federico A, Kaufmann G H, Comparative study of wavelet thresholding methods for denoising electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringes, Opt Eng, 40(2001)2598-2604.
- Mirza S, Kumar R, Shakher C, Study of various pre-processing schemes and wavelet filters for speckle noise reduction in digital speckle pattern interferometric fringes, Opt Eng, 44(2005)1-6.
- Tounsi Y, Ghlaifan A, Kumar M, Mendoza-Santoyo F, Matoba O, Nassim A, Fringe pattern analysis in wavelet domain. in, Holographic Materials and Applications, (ed) Kumar M, Chapt 8, (Intech Open, Rijeka), 2019.
- Kemao Q, Windowed Fourier transform for fringe pattern analysis, Appl Opt, 43(2004)2695-2702.
- Vargas J, Sorzano C O S, Quiroga J A, Estrada J C, Carazo J M, Fringe pattern denoising by image dimensionality reduction, Opt Lasers Eng, 51(2013)921-928.
- Maciej W, Krzysztof P, Denoising and extracting background from fringe patterns using midpoint-based bidimensional empirical mode decomposition, Appl Opt, 53(2014)B215-B222.
- Tounsi Y, Kumar M, Nassim A, Mendoza-Santoyo F, Speckle noise reduction in digital speckle pattern interferometric fringes by nonlocal means and its related adaptive kernel-based methods, Appl Opt, 57(2018)7681-7690.
- Tang C, Wang L, Yan H, Li C, Comparison on performance of some representative and recent filtering methods in electronic speckle pattern interferometry,Opt Lasers Eng, 50(2012)1036-1051.
- Kulkarni R, Rastogi P, Fringe denoising algorithms: A review, Opt Lasers Eng, (2020)106190; doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2020.106190.
- Cai Y, Liang J, Yu X, A novel automated approach for noise detection in interference fringes pattern images using feature learning, Proc SPIE, 10835(2018); doi.org/10.1117/12.2505200
- Chen M, Tang C, Xu M, Lei Z, A clustering framework based on FCM and texture features for denoising ESPI fringe patterns with variable density, Opt Lasers Eng, 119(2019)77-86.
- Hao F, Tang C, Xu M, Lei Z, Batch denoising of ESPI fringe patterns based on convolutional neural network, Appl Opt, 58(2019)3338-3346.
- Yan K, Yu Y, Huang C, Sui L, Qian K, Anand A, Fringe pattern denoising based on deep learning, Opt Commun, 437(2019)148-152.
- Feng S, Chen Q, Gu G , Tao T, Zhang L, Hu Y, Yin W, Zuo C, Fringe pattern analysis using deep learning, Advanced Photonics, 1(2019)025001; doi.org/10.1117/1.AP.1.2.025001.
|Asian Journal of Physics||Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 835-852|
Role of self-referenced interferometry in measuring the orbital angular momentum of optical vortices: A review
Praveen Kumar1, Naveen K Nishchal1 and Kehar Singh2
1Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Bihta, Patna-801 106, India
2Department of Applied Sciences, The NorthCap University, Gurugram- 122 017, India
Association of optical vortices with the orbital angular momentum of light provides a new understanding of various optical and physical phenomena. For widespread applications of vortex beams in diverse areas, different techniques for their efficient generation and detection have been investigated. Self-referenced interferometric techniques are often encountered to examine the phase singularity of optical vortices through intensity measurements. This paper reviews the recent progress in techniques for topological charge measurement of vortex beams emphasizing the role of self-referenced interferometry. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Optical vortices, Vortex beam, Orbital angular momentum, Phase singularity, Interferometry.
|Asian Journal of Physics||Vol. 29 Nos 10-12, 2020, 891-905|
Thin film sensing with terahertz metamaterials
Dibakar Roy Chowdhury1, Parama Pal2, and Bishnu P Pal1
1Department of Physics, Ecole Centrale School of Engineering – Mahindra University, Bahadurpally, Hyderabad-500 043, India
2TCS Research Labs, Bangalore-560 066, India
Plasmonic metamaterials-based sensing has generated a great deal of interests in recent years because of the relatively simple designs involved with metamaterials combined with strong field confinement attainable at the sub-wavelength scales. Normally high-quality factor resonance-based metamaterials are desirable to realize efficient meta sensors. In this paper, we have reviewed several metamaterials-based interesting schemes to design thin film sensors, in particular. We have also described the benefits and drawbacks of the reported sensing techniques. This review should be helpful to achieve smart designs of terahertz metamaterials-based sensors for exploitation with rich dividends. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Metamaterials, Metasurfaces, Terahertz, Sensing, Thin films.