An International Peer Reviewed Research Journal
Frequency : Monthly,
ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Editor-In-Chief (Hon.) :
Dr. V.K. Rastogi
e-mail:[email protected]
[email protected]

 AJP ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Vol 30, No 2, February, 2021

Journal of Physics

Volume 30, No 2, February, 2021

Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30, No 2, 2021, 219-238

Wolfgang Kiefer – Multi-Talented German Physicist

Rajinder Singh
Research Group: Physics Education and History of Science.
Physics Department, Institute of Physics. University of Oldenburg. 26111 Oldenburg, Germany

I have written more than 30 books and a number of articles on scientists and politicians. However, I have no experience of writing on a living legend, like Prof Wolfgang Kiefer. Professor Vinod Rastogi, Editor-in-Chief, Asian Journal of Physics, told me that he is planning to organize a special issue of AJP honouring him on the occasion of his 80th birthday on Feb 12, 2021, and invited me to contribute something. I happily agreed, as I know Professor Kiefer for a while, though, only through correspondence, and never had the opportunity to meet him personally.

Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 251-257

An Interview with Wolfgang Kiefer
(On the occasion of 80th birthday of Wolfgang; Feb 12, 2021)

V K Rastogi
Indian Spectroscopy Society, KC-68,1. Old Kavinagar, Ghaziabad-201 002, India

The effect known as Raman Effect was first demonstrated experimentally on Feb 28, 1928 by Prof Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Sciences, Calcutta (India). After the discovery of Raman Effect in 1928, the researchers all over the world became interested in this new technique which is based on the inelastic scattering of light. In 1929, G Joos, wrote a complete chapter: “The Raman Effect” in German “Encylopaedia of Experimental Physics”. In the same year (1929), the importance of the effect in relevance to chemistry was given by C Schäfer and F Matossi in a monograph “Fortschritte der Chemie, Physik und Physikalische Chemie”. In 1931, K W F Kohlrausch published “Der Smekal-Raman-Effekt”, in which he gave 417 references1. For the first time, the term ” Raman Effect” was introduced to the scientific literature by one of the Raman’s junior colleagues, L A Ramdas through a short note which appeared in the 14th July issue of Nature in 1928. Also for the first time the term “Raman Effect” appeared in Title- Index of Vol 122 of Nature in 1928.

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  16. Singh R, Riess F, The Nobel Laureate Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, FRS and His Contacts with the British Scientific Community in a Social and 
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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 259-272

The Best is Yet To Be: Raman Effect – Past, Present and Future

V B Kartha*

The Past
“—–the study of light-scattering might carry one into the deepest problems of physics and chemistry—“. [1]. These prophetic words, spoken by Sir C.V. Raman, in his Nobel lecture on December 11-1930, are never so true as they are today, more than 90 years after the discovery of the “Raman Effect”. Raman said, “The universality of the phenomenon, the convenience of the experimental technique and the simplicity of the spectra obtained enable the effect to be used as an experimental aid to the solution of a wide range of problems in physics and chemistry.” Raman had already visualized why and how this will happen, when he stated “The frequency differences determined from the spectra, the width and character of the lines appearing in them, and the intensity and state of polarization of the scattered radiations enable us to obtain an insight into the ultimate structure of the scattering substance”. How prophetic he was when he stated “It follows that the new field of spectroscopy has practically unrestricted scope in the study of problems relating to the structure of matter.” !

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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 273-280

Raman Spectroscopy: Twenty-five years of concept to clinical application for early diagnosis of pre-cancer in Barrett’s Oesophagus

M S Noor Mohamed1, A Dudgeon1,3, E Upchurch2, O J Old1, A Pavlou (deceased)1, L M Almond3,
G R Lloyd1, 6, M Isabelle1, 7, J Hutchings1, C Kendall1, J Day4, N Stone5 and H Barr1.

1Biophotonics Research Unit, Gloucestershire Royal Hospital, Great Western Road, Gloucester GL13NN United Kingdom
2Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol, United Kingdom.
3Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom
4Bristol Interface Group/Clifton Photonics, University of Bristol , United Kingdom
5Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom
6MRC Phenome Centre, Birmingham United Kingdom.
7Bioimaging Group, GSK, Shortstown, England United Kingdom
This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday

Early diagnosis and treatment of all diseases and in particular cancer is important to allow curative treatment. Symptomatic cancer is usually a lethal disease that requires extensive treatment that is enormously challenging for the patient. Over some twenty-five years we have explored the use of Raman to detect molecular changes in precancerous change and cancer of the oesophagus. The aims have been to reduce the subjectivity of histological diagnosis in particular of dysplastic pre invasive cancerous changes in columnar lined (Barrett’s Oesophagus). These changes are often macroscopically invisible and very easily undetectable. Following this we have investigated the development of rapid diagnostic techniques to detect early degeneration in real time without the delays inherent in biopsy and histological analysis. In particular, we have concentrated on the early detection of the macroscopically invisible changes that precede the degeneration to cancer in some patients with Barrett’s Oesophagus. Once these changes are detected the area can we treated using endoscopic techniques and the progression to cancer interrupted without major and life threatening interventions. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Vibrational spectroscopy, Raman process, Photoions, Multidimensional spectroscopy

  1. Fitzgerald R C, Di Pietro M, Ragunath K, Ang Y, Kang J Y, Watson P, British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines on the diagnosis and management of Barrett’s oesophagus, Gut, 63(2014)7-42.
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  5. Kendall C, Hutchings J, Barr H, Shepherd N, Stone N Exploiting the diagnostic potential of biomolecular fingerprinting with vibrational spectroscopy, Faraday Discuss, 149(2011)279-296.
  6. Isabelle M, Dorney J, Lewis A, Lloyd G R, Old O, Shepherd N, Rodriguez-Justo M, Barr H, Lau K, Bell I, Ohrel S, Thomas G, Stone N, Kendall C, Multi-centre Raman spectral mapping of oesophageal cancer tissue: a study to assess system transferability, Faraday Discuss, 187(2016)87-104.
  7. Old O J, Fullwood L M, Scott R, Lloyd G R, Almond L M, Shepherd N, Stone N, Barrand H, Kendall C, Vibrational Spectroscopy for Cancer Diagnostics, Analytical Methods, 6(2014)3901-3917.
  8. Almond L M, Hutchings J, Lloyd G, Wadley M, Shepherd N, Sanders S, Day J, Stevens O, Stone N, Kendall C, Barr H, Endoscopic Raman spectroscopy enables objective diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s Oesophagus, GIE, 79(2013)37-45.
  9. Lloyd G, Almond L M, Stone N, Shepherd N, Sanders S, Hutchings J, Barr H, Kendall C, Utilising non-consensus pathology measurements to improve the diagnosis of oesophageal cancer using a Raman spectroscopic probe. Analyst, 139(2014)381-386.
  10. Upchurch E, Old O J, Lloyd G R, Isabelle M, Kendall C, Shetty G, Pavlou A, Shepherd N, Barr H, Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s Oesophagus: Are there impending optical and spectroscopic solutions, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, 3(2016)61-67.
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  14. Wang Q S, Wang T, Zhang K H, Biomedical optical spectroscopy for the early diagnosis of gastrointestinal neoplasms, Tumour Biology, 39(2017)1-12.
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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 281-301

Immuno-SERS microscopy: From SERS nanotag design and correlative single-particle spectroscopy to protein localization on single cells and tissue

Michelle Hechler, Supriya Srivastav and Sebastian Schlücker*
Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE),
University Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstr. 5, 45141 Essen, Germany
This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday

This review summarizes work from the authors’ laboratory on immuno-surface-enhanced Raman scattering (iSERS) microscopy since the demonstration of its proof of concept in 2006. iSERS microscopy is an emerging bioimaging technique for the selective localization of proteins on single cells and tissue. Selectivity for target proteins is achieved by labeling the corresponding antibodies with SERS labels/nanotags, i.e., molecularly functionalized noble metal nanoparticles for spectral identification. Central advantages of iSERS are multiplexing, quantification, minimization of autofluorescence, no/minimal photobleaching and the need for only a single laser excitation wavelength. The performance of SERS labels/nanotags can be studied in correlative single-particle SERS microspectroscopic and electron microscopic experiments. The rational design of optimal SERS labels/nanotags can be supported by computer simulations predicting the optical properties including the SERS signal enhancement. Work on iSERS from the authors’ group over the past 15 years on the selective localization of target proteins, especially in cancer diagnostics, on tissue and single cells is highlighted. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: iSERS microscopy, SERS labels/nanotags, (iSECARS), Bioimaging technique.
Total Refs : 60

Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 303-318

Vibrational dynamics via multidimensional electronic spectroscopy

Tobias Brixner
Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Würzburg,
Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany
This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday

Vibrational spectroscopy is commonly performed using infrared radiation for direct transitions between vibrational states or using visible radiation in a Raman process. As an alternative to narrowband lasers, broadband femtosecond pulses can be employed to excite vibrational wave packets whose temporal oscillations contain analogous information. In this review article, it is shown that coherent multidimensional electronic spectroscopy provides a generalization of this idea, such that vibrational information can be retrieved together with ultrafast dynamics and correlations between various electronically excited states. In particular, fluorescence-detected coherent two- and three-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is discussed. This can be realized in a single-beam geometry with shot-to-shot pulse shaping that allows for fast data acquisition and simultaneous measurement of 15 (or more) different four- and six-wave-mixing spectra. These provide information on higher electronically excited states, vibrational dynamics, and exciton transport, for example in supramolecular systems. Generalizations of this idea offer additional spatial resolution on a µm length scale in an optical microscope or even down to the few nm length scale using photoemission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the concept of signal detection was transferred to molecular beams and photoions. A topic of current interest is retrieving the full nonlinear tensor via polarization-shaped laser pulses. In general, multidimensional spectroscopy is a powerful strategy to systematically map out the response of a quantum system for increasing orders of nonlinearity in light–matter interaction. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Vibrational spectroscopy, Raman process, Photoions, Multidimensional spectroscopy
Total Refs: 119

Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 321-335

Determination of accurate absolute Raman cross-sections of benzene and cyclohexane in the gas phase

Ankit Raj1, Henryk A Witek1,2, and Hiro-o Hamaguchi1,2
1Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
2Center for Emergent Functional Matter Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday

Absolute Raman cross-section of a Raman transition governs the strength of its observed intensity. The knowledge of this property is crucial in understanding the nature of the Raman tensor and for direct quantitative applications of the Raman intensities. In this study, we determine the absolute differential Raman cross-sections of benzene and cyclohexane: two molecules of fundamental importance, used routinely in studies pertinent to Raman cross-sections. In our experiments, over 15 sets of pressure dependent Raman spectra were acquired on an intensity calibrated Raman spectrometer. The contribution of air, as an impurity, in the pressure readings was quantified. We used pure rotational Raman bands of molecular hydrogen, with known accurate Raman cross-sections as the intensity standards. The Raman cross-sections of the ring breathing mode in benzene (ν2, 992.3 cm–1) and cyclohexane (ν5, 801.3 cm–1) were determined in the gas phase, with uncertainty of 2.7 and 3.5%, respectively. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Absolute Raman cross-section, Differential Raman cross-section, Raman intensities, Polarizability, Raman spectroscopy.

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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 337-345

Effects of charge and alkyl chain configuration on hydrophobic hydration: A temperature-dependent Raman study

Subhadip Roy and Jahur Alam Mondal*
Radiation & Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085, India
This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday

Hydrophobic hydration is central to macromolecular organization pertaining to chemistry, biology, and applied fields. A delicate balance of hydrophobe-water and water-water interactions dictates the water structure around the hydrophobe. Depending on the size of the hydrophobe, water adopts either tetrahedral or broken hydrogen-bonded structures at the hydrophobic surface. Here, we have investigated the structure of water in the vicinity of molecular hydrophobes that differ from each other either by net charge or by alkyl chain configuration. We have applied Raman difference spectroscopy combined with simultaneous curve fitting analysis (RD-SCF) at variable temperature, which provided the water spectrum (OH stretch) pertaining the hydration shell of the solute at different solution temperatures. Our results show that one-unit positive charge on the hydrophobic group (e.g., tert-butyl alcohol vs. trimethylamine N-oxide) does not affect the tetrahedral structure of water in the hydrophobic hydration shell. On the other hand, the change in alkyl chain configuration from tert-butyl to n-butyl group destabilizes the tetrahedral water structure. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, hydrophobic hydration, tetrahedral structure, dangling OH

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  8. Roy S, Biswas B, Ghosh N, Singh P C, Mondal J A, Hydrophobic hydration of fluoroalkyl (C–F) is distinctly different from that of its hydrogenated counterpart (C–H), as observed by Raman difference with simultaneous curve fitting analysis, J Phys Chem C, 123(2019)27012-27019.
  9. Patra A, Roy S, Saha S, Palit D K, Mondal J A, Observation of extremely weakly interacting OH (~3600 cm–1) in the vicinity of high charge density metal ions (Mz+; Z = 1, 2, 3): A Structural Heterogeneity in the Extended Hydration Shell. J Phys Chem C, 124(2020)3028-3036.
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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 347-352

Spectroscopic investigation about the influence of charge of cation on the interaction of zwitterionic liposomes with minor groove of DNA

Tonima Nandy, and Prashant Chandra Singh*
School of Chemical Sciences Indian Association for the Cultivation of Sciences, Jadavpur, Kolkata- 700 032, India
This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday

Fluorescence spectroscopy has been applied to study the influence of cations (Na+, Mg2+ and La3+) of various charges on the interaction of zwitterionic liposome with the minor groove of DNA. It has been found that DPPC does not interact with the minor groove of DNA in the presence of Na+. However, the interaction of DPPC is enhanced with the minor groove of DNA in the presence of Mg2+ and La3+ and the effect is more profound in the case of La3+. This study depicts that ionic charges can modulate the interaction of DPPC liposome with DNA minor groove which will be helpful in designing the drug delivery system. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Lipid, DNA, Minor Groove, Simulation, Charge.

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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 381-404

Comparison of molecular structure, Hirshfeld surface, vibrational spectra and nonlinear optical property of 3-chloro- 4-fluroaniline and 2-iodoaniline with p-iodoaniline and p-bromoaniline on the basis of density functional theory

Nimmy L John and Sunila Abraham
Post Graduate & Research Department of Physics, Research Centre of University of Kerala,
Christian College, Chengannur- 689 122 , India
This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday

Density functional theoretical computations were performed to obtain structural geometry, Hirshfeld surface, vibrational spectra and NLO property of 3-chloro-4-fluroaniline and 2-iodoaniline and results are compared with p-iodoaniline and p-bromoaniline. Hirshfeld surface analysis represented in the 2D fingerprint plot shows the presence of strong and weak intermolecular interactions within the dimer molecules. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap 4.6926 eV in 2-IA and 4.9377 eV in 3C4FA is an evidence for intra-molecular charge transfer interactions (π → π* as well as n → π*) within the molecules enhancing NLO activity. FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-visible spectra of the compounds are simulated and compared with the corresponding experimental spectra. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: FT-Raman, FT-IR, Hirshfeld surface, Hyper polarizability, Nonlinear optical activity.

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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, 405-411

Improved color properties of light emitting diodes with red phosphors and quantum dots

Jun Yeong Kim1, Hye-Rin Kim1, Yong Jin Lee1, In Sung Choi1, Jung-Gyun Lee1, Jae-Hyeon Ko1, Yongduk Kim2, Taehee Park3, and Young Wook Ko3
1School of Nano Convergence Technology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwondo 24252, Korea
2Cheorwon Plasma Research Institute, Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, 24062, Korea
3GLVISION Co, Ltd., Geumgang-ro, Seo-myeon, Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, 24062, Korea
This paper is dedicated to Prof Wolfgang Kiefer on the occasion of his 80th Birthday

This paper presents the effect of red color-conversion materials on the emitting spectrum of typical light emitting diodes (LEDs) for general lighting applications. Conventional LEDs consist of blue LED chips and yellow phosphors lacking deep red in their emitting spectra. Addition of red phosphors or red quantum dots may improve the color-rendering properties of white LEDs. Either the K2SiF6:Mn4+(KSF) red phosphor or red CdSe/ZnS quantum dot was included in the white LED made by using blue LEDs and YAG(Y3Al5O12:Ce3+) green phosphors. Inclusion of red emitting materials enhanced the color rendering index(CRI) significantly, especially the R9 index associated with the strong red. In addition, it was found that the improved white LEDs could be used to enhance the color gamut of liquid crystal displays. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Light emitting diode, Phosphor, Quantum dot, Color rendering index, Color gamut

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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 2, 2021, i-iii

Book Review
C V Raman and the Press: Scientific Reporting and Image Building

(Part III: The Raman Research Institute Period)
Author: Dr. Rajinder Singh, University of Oldenburg, Germany.
Publishers: Shaker Publisher, Dueren, Germany,
Year of Publication 2020,
Pages XIV + 119 .
Price, Digital: 5,47 Euro, Paperback: 21,90 Euro.
ISBN: — 978-3-8440-7520-5.
The present book is the third and the last part of the trilogy entitled “C V Raman and the Press: Science Reporting and Image Building.” It chronicled Raman’s last phase of service career at the Raman Research Institute (RRI), Bangalore during 1948-1970. The first and the second parts of the sequel profiled his life in Calcutta (1917-1933) and Bangalore(1933-1948).