An International Peer Reviewed Research Journal
Frequency : Monthly,
ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Editor-In-Chief (Hon.) :
Dr. V.K. Rastogi
e-mail:[email protected]
[email protected]

AJP ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Vol 30, Nos 10-11, October-November, 2021

Journal of Physics

Volume 30 Nos 10-11Oct-Nov, 2021

A Special Issue Dedicated
Prof Pramod Kumar Rastogi
Guest Edited By : Kehar Singh & Naveen Nishchal

Anita Publications
FF-43, 1st Floor, Mangal Bazar, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi-110 092, Indi


Asian Journal of Physics
(A Publication Not for Profit)
Volume 30, Nos 10-11 (2021)

Guest Editorial
About Prof Pramod Kumar Rastogi
About the Guest Editors

Working with Pramod: A quarter century journey
E Hack 1409

Image quality enhancement of embedded holograms in holographic information hiding using deep neural networks
Tomoyoshi Shimobaba, Sota Oshima, Takashi Kakue and Tomoyoshi Ito1421

Digital holographic tomography of cylindrical objects with a conical mirror
Miguel León-Rodríguez, Amalia Martínez-García, Juan A Rayas and Juan Antonio Pantoja-Mayo1429

Improved particle size estimation in digital in-line holography based on Fienup’s iterative algorithm
Anik Ghosh, Rishikesh Kulkarni, Chandra Bhanu Gupta and Sreedeep Sekharan1437

Digital stroboscopic holography and digital image correlation in tympanic membrane measurement: a comparative study
P G G Muyshondt, P Livens and J J J Dirckx 1447

Single-shot digital holography with no or less prominent twin-images based on random phase modulation
Takanori Nomura 1457

Design of finite impulse response filter for hologram demodulation in digital holographic microscopy
Pascal Picart and Silvio Montresor 1465

Defect detection in honeycomb sandwich structures using time-average digital holography
Binu P Thomas, S Annamalai Pillai and C S Narayanamurthy1475

Holographic conversion of optical modes
Y Miyamoto1483

Instrumented indentation combined with optical techniques: challenges and achievements for residual stress and pile-up measurements
M R Viotti 1493

Graphics processing unit assisted space-frequency method for high-speed defect propagation analysis from fringe patterns
Ankur Vishnoi and Gannavarpu Rajshekhar1513

Interferometric metrology in spatially quasi-incoherent light
M Sjödahl, V Dembele, J Wahl and K Ramser1521

Tilt measurement using interferometry – An overview
A R Ganesan and V C Pretheesh Kumar1527

Micro and nano scale optical metrology for shiny surfaces and difficult to access aircraft engine components – A review
Aswin Haridas and Murukeshan Vadakke Matham1547

High accuracy surface roughness measurements utilizing evanescent illumination
F M Sciammarella, C A Sciammarella and L Lamberti1573

P_Scope® – A virtual polariscope
K Ramesh1593

Optical wave and beam propagation in hyperbolic metamaterials comprising multilayer metallo-dielectric structures
Hammid Al-Ghezi, Rudra Gnawali, and Partha P Banerjee1601


About Prof Pramod Kumar Rastogi

Emeritus Professor, Swiss federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

P.K. Rastogi

Driven by his love for optics and optical engineering, Pramod Rastogi’s career has found fuel in his desire to spread worldwide his passion in the field, through his teaching, research, books and topical issues. He devoted himself to these activities with a view to leaving a legacy for future generations attracted to or interested in the broad area of optical metrology.
Prof Rastogi was elected as a Member of the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences in 2014. He is a recipient of the 2014 Denis Gabor Award. He is also a recipient of the Hetényi Award for the most significant research paper published in Experimental Mechanics in the year 1982.
He studied Physics (M.Sc in 1973) and Applied Optics (M. Tech from the IIT Delhi in 1975), and completed his Ph D from the University of Besancon in France in 1979. He joined the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in 1978, where he retired as a Professor on 1st January 2017. He is currently an Emeritus Professor at the EPFL. He was elected:
• A Fellow of the Optical Society of America in 1993;
• A Fellow of the International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) in 1995; and,
• A Fellow of the Optical Society of India in 1996.
Prof Rastogi was the Editor-in-chief of Optics and Lasers in Engineering, a monthly ISI journal published by Elsevier, Oxford from 1 March 1999 until 31 Dec 2019. He devoted himself with passion to the improvement in the quality of the journal. His efforts proved to be instrumental in guiding the journal to be amongst the best in optics reaching in 2019 an impact factor of above 4. His long tenure at the helm of the journal allowed him to influence and orient the development of optics in its breadth and modernity in the last two decades. Prof Rastogi is also one of the founding members of Asian J Phys.
He has established himself as a leading expert internationally in the area of developing digital signal processing based innovative solutions relying on spatial and temporal phase shifting for estimating simultaneously multiple phase components and their derivatives. His work spread over more than 180 papers in peer-reviewed journals represents a significant contribution to the optical metrology community.
Prof Rastogi has authored book chapters, Encyclopaedia articles, and a collection of books in a wide spectrum of fields in optical metrology:
• Single and Multicomponent Digital Optical Signal Analysis: Estimation of phase and its derivatives, IOP Publishing, 2017;
• Digital Optical Measurement Techniques and Applications, Artech House, 2015;
• Phase Estimation in Optical Interferometry, CRC Press, 2014;
• Optical Methods for Solid Mechanics: A Full-Field Approach, Wiley-vch, 2012;
• Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques, John Wiley & Sons, 2001;
• Trends in Optical Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection, Elsevier, 2000;
• Photomechanics, Topics in Applied Physics Series, Vol. 77, Springer-Verlag, 2000;
• Optical Measurement Techniques and Applications, Artech Book House, 1998;
• Holographic interferometry-Principles and Methods, Springer-Verlag, 1994.
These books have contributed to bringing together an extensive and important volume of knowledge within the reach of students, teachers, practitioners and researchers in the field of optical metrology. Besides having a healthy influence on the teaching of optical metrology, these books and his breadth of interests and range of innovative contributions in the field are expected to nurture, inspire, and sustain excellence in its education and development worldwide for years to come.
Prof Rastogi has developed in his capacity of guest editor eighteen topical special issues. Of these, the special issue dedicated to “Optics in Switzerland” in 1995 is an extensive trilogy spread over three consecutive journal issues that he prepared for the SPIE’s archival journal of Optical Engineering.
He has also chaired and organized several stand-alone international symposiums on optical metrology. These include the Conferences on Processes in Combined Digital Optical and Imaging Methods Applied to Structural Engineering, Monte Verita, Locarno, Switzerland, May 8-13, 2016; on Advance Phase Measurements held at Mont Verita, Locarno, Switzerland, May 17-21, 2010; on Trends in Optical Non-destructive Testing, Lugano, Switzerland, May 2-5, 2000; on Applied Optical Metrology, Balatonfüred, Hungary, June 8-11, 1998; etc.
Prof Rastogi’s commitment to science and technology in building bridges at the institutional and international levels is strongly reflected in the pivotal role he has played in laying groundwork for developing a strong collaboration between the Swiss and Indian Institutions of S&T. A few of his many initiatives are cited below. Notably, he actively contributed to the holding of a high level Indo Swiss Workshop on S&T at Bangalore in 2003 that helped in setting up the framework of the Indo Swiss bilateral programs in S&T. He was responsible to the setting up of ISJRP – the pilot project on bilateral partnership in S&T between Switzerland and India – in 2004; and in developing ISBRI (Indo- Swiss bilateral research initiative) in 2006. He also contributed to the setting up of the EPFL-IIT Madras joint postgraduate course on “Technology and sustainable development, Innovative and Integrated approaches in emerging countries”. These initiatives have led to active academic exchange programs involving faculty, students and research groups with a view to fostering networking, research linkages and partnerships in S&T between India and Switzerland.
He was an honorary visiting Professor at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi between 1999 & 2003; and has also taught optical metrology abroad over the past twenty five years in his capacity of visiting Professor at different universities in Italy, such as, the University of Nuoro, the University of Cagliari, and the University of Calabria. He is currently a guest Professor at the IIT Gandhinagar in India.

About Guest Editors

Prof Kehar Singh

Professor Kehar Singh served as a member of the faculty at IIT Delhi since 1965 in various capacities. He was an ‘Academic Visitor’ at Imperial College of Science & Technology, London during 1969-1970, and visited / carried out research for short periods at British Scientific and Industrial Research Association (SIRA) Ealing, Queen’s Univ. Belfast, and National Physical Laboratory Teddington. He had been a Professor since January 1984 and served as Head of Physics Deptt. during the period 1996-1999. Prof. Singh held the position of Dean, Post Graduate Studies and Research, IIT Delhi during the period of March 2001-Aug. 2003. He served as CLUSTER Chair at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland) in Dec.2002. Until June 30,2011 he served as an Emeritus Professor at IIT Delhi where he continued to teach and carry out research and consultancy.
Since 2011, he has been an Hony. Distinguished Research Professor at ITM (now NorthCap) University, Gurgaon (Haryana) where he mentors a group of faculty members and supervises research in the areas of Information Security, Singular Optics, and Nanophotonics. Prof. Singh served for a number of years as Chairman of the Research Council, IRDE (Defense Research & Development Organization) Dehradun and a member of the Cluster Advisory Council for a group of DRDO laboratories. He also served as a Member of the Research Council of National Physical Laboratory New Delhi. In May 2015, he was nominated as an Associate Editor of Optics Express, a high impact factor journal of the Optical Society of America (OSA), and served for two terms until May 2021.
Prof Kehar Singh has been an active researcher and educator and created infrastructural facilities for teaching and research in his areas of specialization: Photonics/Information Optics (Image formation and evaluation, Dynamic holography, Nonlinear photorefractives, Optical correlators, Holographic storage, Digital holography, Singular optics, and Optical cryptography). He has published extensively, having authored / co-authored nearly 350 peer reviewed research papers. Besides these there are approx. 75 review articles in books and journals, and 70 papers in conference proceedings. His research papers have been cited extensively in the literature; one of the papers having been cited 1118 times as on June 15 2021.
Research publications by Prof. Singh and coworkers during the period 1965-1985 resulted in 11 Ph D theses. Since 1986, 20 students have completed Ph D. degree under the supervision of Prof Singh. Besides these, 75 Master of Technology and M.Sc. students have been guided in their dissertation work. He had been the backbone of the M.Tech. program in Applied Optics at IIT Delhi ever since it started in 1966. This program has produced many scientists who occupy /occupied key positions in India and abroad.
Professor Kehar Singh was honored with Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award in Physical Sciences in 1985 by the CSIR, Govt. of India. He has been awarded in 2001, the Galileo Galilei Award of the International Commission on Optics. The Optical Society of India honored him with the ‘OSI Award’ and was also given ‘Life Time Achievement Award’ at the OSI symp. held at Tezpur in Dec.2007. The Golden Jubilee ‘Distinguished Service Award’ of IIT Delhi was given to him 2011. Prof. Singh was also honored in 2011, under the Golden Jubilee ‘Honor the Mentor’ program’ of IIT Delhi.
Prof Singh is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America, SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering), and Indian National Academy of Engineering, in addition to being a Distinguished
Fellow of the Optical Society of India and a Fellow of the Laser & Spectroscopy Society of India. He was President of the Optical Society of India from 1991 to 1994 and its Vice-President (1988-1991). He also served as the President of ‘Laser and Spectroscopy Society’ of India and was President, Indian Science Congress Association (Physical Sciences Section) in 2004. Prof. Singh had been an international advisory member of the editorial board of Optical Review (Japan, 1994-2010), Member of the editorial boards of Optics & Lasers in Eng. (Elsevier, 1999 – 2006), and an editorial member of Indian J.Pure Appl.Phys. (CSIR.1986-88). During the period (2015-2021) he served as an Associate Editor of Optics Express. Currently he is on the editorial boards of Computer Optics (Russia), J. Optics (India / Springer , 1974- to date), Asian J. Phys. (1992- to date). and Invertis J. Science and Technol (2007- ).
Prof. Singh has been serving as a reviewer of research papers for several journals of repute. He has given approx. 100 invited lectures in various international and national conferences/seminars/workshops and has also been associated as member of organizing/technical/steering committees of several international and national conferences/seminars/ workshops. He has visited U.K, France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Canada, USA, Mexico, Japan, South Korea, Australia, Singapore, and Indonesia for delivering lectures in conferences/chairing conference sessions and for interacting with scientists. He was one of the Directors of the II Winter College in Optics held at ICTP, Trieste, Italy during Feb-March, 1995
Professor Singh’s research work attracted funding for sponsored research in the field of Optics and Photonics from a number of Govt. agencies such as Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Human Resource Development, and Defense Research and Development Organization. He has served on many committees of the Govt. of India (e.g. Environmental Impact Assessment Committee, Ministry of Environment and Forests) and has been a consultant to some industries.
As Technical chair of the International Conference on ‘Optics and Optoelectronics’ (Dehradun India, Dec. 1998) Prof. Singh co-edited a two volume proceedings of the conference, and SPIE volume 3729, ‘Selected papers from International Conference on Optics and Optoelectronics’98 (Silver Jubilee Symposium of the Optical Society of India). He was Technical co-chair of the International conference on Optics and Opto-electronics (Dec. 2005 Dehradun), and Co-chair Advisory Committee of the OSI confer. held in Jan.2012 at IIT Delhi. He was Technical chair of OSI’s international conference held at GJ Univ.of Science &Technol. in Hisar (Nov.23-26, 2017), and Chair International Advisory Committee of Photonics-2018 held at IIT Delhi (Dec.12-15,2018). Prof Singh was also the Technical Chair and Chair International Advisory Committee of the International Conference on Optics and Electro-optics held at IRDE Dehradun (Oct.19-22,2019). Proceedings of the conference have been published by Springer in 2021.
Professor Singh has edited / co-edited 2 special issues on ‘Photorefractives and their applications’ of J. Optics (India), 4 issues on ‘Optical pattern recognition’ and ‘Optical information security’ of Asian J. Physics, and a book on ‘Perspectives in Engineering Optics’. A number of special issues of Asian J. Phys. have been guest edited by him; the most recent ones being in honor of Prof. Francis Yu and Prof. Colin Sheppard. A book brought out by IIT Delhi, containing memoirs of some of the ‘Golden Jubilee Distinguished Award’ winner retired faculty members of IIT Delhi, has also been edited by Prof. Singh.
Prof. Singh has also served as a member/chair of several national committees of the MHRD, CSIR, ISRO, DRDO, DST, and INAE. Besides having served as a consultant to some industries/organizations, he has also been a consultant on security holograms to some state Govts. in India. He served as a member of the Executive Committee, National Photonics Program DRDO, and is a member of the Academic Advisory Council, NorthCap University Gurugram. He served as a member of the Board of Governors of Regional Engineering college Kurukshetra, and of ‘Academic advisory councils’, ‘Board of Studies’ and ‘Research degree committees’ of several universities, and as an invited Senate member of National Institute of Technology Agartala (Tripura).

Prof Naveen Nishchal

Dr Naveen Nishchal is an associate professor in the department of physics at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Patna. Dr. Nishchal received his Ph.D. degree in physics from IIT Delhi in 2005. He served Instruments Research and Development Establishment (DRDO), Dehradun as a Scientist ‘C’ during 2004-2007. Further, he joined IIT Guwahati as an assistant professor in the physics department and worked during 2007-2008. He has been a Researcher to the Oulu Southern Institute, University of Oulu, Finland and academic visitor to the department of physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China. His research interests include optical information processing and security, digital holography, correlation-based optical pattern recognition, fractional Fourier transform-based signal processing, interferometry, and orbital angular momentum of light. He has authored/co-authored 70 peer-reviewed international journal papers, three book chapters, and 160 papers in various conferences/seminars/symposia. He has authored a monograph Optical Cryptosystems published from IOP Publs., Bristol, UK, 2019.
He became senior member of OSA and SPIE in 2015. He is a life member of Optical Society of India, Indian Science Congress Association, and Lasers and Spectroscopy Society of India. He is a member of Executive Council of Optical Society of India since 2018. He is an active reviewer to the journals published from OSA, SPIE, Elsevier, Springer, IEEE, IEE, IOP, CSIR, Hindawi Publs, and MDPI-online. Dr. Nishchal was selected as outstanding reviewer for the year 2016 for the journal of optics from IOP, UK.
He has supervised four Ph D theses and currently four research scholars are pursuing doctoral program under his guidance. He has successfully carried out research and development projects sponsored from CSIR and DRDO. He has been the Director of a winter school on Modern Optics and its Applications organized at IIT Patna in Dec 2015 fully sponsored by Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India. He organized a conference on “Recent Advances in Information Optics & Quantum Optics (IOQO-2014)” at IIT Patna during Nov. 07-08, 2014. He has been a member of technical program committee/advisory committee/organizing committee of several conferences/seminars/workshops within India and abroad.
Currently, he is an Associate Editor of Optical Engineering (SPIE, USA) and Editor of Asian Journal of Physics (India). He served as an academic editor to the scientific world journal: signal processing during 2013-2016. Dr Nishchal received the India Top Cited Author Award-2019 as an author of one of the top 1% most-cited papers in physics published over the period of 2016-2018 by IOP Publs., UK. Recently, his name appeared in world’s top 2% scientists list in optics published by Stanford University, USA (PLOS Biology, Oct 2020). As per Google Scholar, Dr Nishchal has more than 2600 citations to his credit. His h-index is 30 and i-10 index is 52.