An International Peer Reviewed Research Journal
Frequency : Monthly,
ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Editor-In-Chief (Hon.) :
Dr. V.K. Rastogi
e-mail:[email protected]
[email protected]

 AJP ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Vol 32, Nos 3 & 4, March – April, 2023

Journal of Physics

Volume 32 Nos 3-4 March – April, 2023

A Special Issue in honour of Prof Jay Enoch

Guest Edited By : Maria L Calvo & Vasudevan Lakshminarayan

Co – Guest Editors : Shrikant Bharadwaj & PremNandhini Satgunam

Anita Publications
FF-43, 1st Floor, Mangal Bazar, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi-110 092, India

About Prof Jay Enoch

Jay M. Enoch was born in April 20, 1929, in New York City. After graduating from Bronx High School of Science in 1946, he completed his pre-optometry studies at Columbia College in 1948 and received his Bachelor Degree in Optometry at Columbia University in 1950. He attended the University of Rochester Institute of Optics in 1953 and obtained his PhD in Physiological Optics from Ohio State University in 1956. Dr. Enoch served as Post-Doctoral Fellow at National Physical Lab, UK with W. S. Stiles 1959–60.
Prof Enoch has practiced Optometry in New York, New Jersey, Missouri and Florida, as well as in the US Army. He has received licenses in California, Florida, New York, Missouri, New Jersey and Ohio. His teaching appointments in universities have included: the Ohio State University School of Optometry, the Washington University School of Medicine, the University of Florida College of Medicine, the Waseda University Department of Applied Physics (Tokyo), the University of Bologna School of Medicine and the University of Modena School of Medicine (Italy), the Optics Department in Complutense University of Madrid (Spain) and the University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco.
Jay M Enoch is currently retired as Professor on Optometry and Vision Science. He was Dean Emeritus, at the School of Optometry, University of California at Berkeley (term 1980-1992). For more than sixty years he has achieved important research works and he is considered a pioneer in the field of vision science. Enoch’s publications include eight books, over twenty chapters, and more than 300 papers or reports in his areas of expertise and research: perimetry, contact lenses, aniseikonia, psychophysics, hyperacuity testing in dense cataracts, the Stiles-Crawford effect and studies of retinal photoreceptor optics. In addition, he has dedicated time and efforts to contribute on very key aspects of the history of science and optics: in particular, to the history of lenses and mirrors, in a vast period of antique civilizations.
More specifically, his research interests can be summarized as follows:
a) Effects on vision resulting from anomalies of the photo-receptor orientation. He demonstrated that there were effects on vision resulting from anomalies of photo-receptor orientation through measurements of the Stiles-Crawford Effect (directional sensitivity of the retina) in a number of disorders and diseases. As a very important contribution, he demonstrated first that vertebrate photo-receptors are waveguides and characterized their properties in several species. He has studied a trans-retinal tractional effect, as well as the sources of these meaningful traction effects both experimentally and through the use of special models.
b) Regarding optimizing vision in eyes of patients with “front of the eye” low vision problems, he developed techniques to correct the vision in neonates and premature infants born with a variety of anterior eye congenital anomalies.
c) In the areaof perimetric methods for testing visual fields, he investigated the effects of image blur upon perimetric measurements, developed a perimetry of neuropsychiatric disorders (apparently affected by anomalies of neurotransmitter substances/therapeutic interventions affecting the neurotransmitters), led advancesinperimetric and visual field standards, and defined the so-called “layer-by-layer quantitative perimetric techniques.”

d) He applied measurements of hyperacuity (Vernier acuity, doubling measurements, bisection tasks, Vernier fields) to clinical practice. He has also been one of a small number of scientists working in this area who have demonstrated that certain Vernier acuity test designs are not affected by age.
Among his most outstanding international activities, Prof. Enoch led the development of a quality School of Optometry in Chennai (Madras), India. TheElite School of Optometry is offering, since 1985, a graduate program in Optometry. An external program of the Birla Institute for Technology and Science (Pilani, Rajasthan) has been developed as well. This School is a model for ca. 6 new Schools of Optometry in India (including Mumbai, Puna, Calcutta, Hyderabad). And he has maintained a research laboratory at the Aravind Eye Hospital at Madurai, India.
Dr Enoch’s honors and awards include the first (modern series) Glenn Fry Lecture Award (1971), the Charles F. Prentice Medal (1974), the Francis I. Proctor Medal of ARVO (1977), a Honor Award from the American Academy of Ophthalmology (1985), the Otto Wichterle Medal (1986), Honorary Doctor of Science Degree from the State University of New York (1993), and in 2002 a Honorary Degree from the Polytechnical University of Catalunya (Spain), as the first recipient of such recognition in Optics and Vision. He has been appointed Alameda and Contra Costa Counties Optometric Association Optometrist of the Year in 1988, and was given the Berkeley Citation at his Festshrift in 1996. He was the first optometrist to receive the Pisart Award of the Lighthouse International (2001).
His professional memberships include Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), for which he served as Trustee and President, Optical Society of America (Fellow), American Academy of Optometry, American Association for the Advancement of Science (Fellow), and Honorary LifeMember, University of California Optometry Alumni Association.

About Editors

Prof Maria L Calvo graduated in Physics in 1969 at the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM, Spain). After graduation she first visited Phillips (Eindhoven, Holland) and started working in quality control on glass fabrication (surface quality and stress analysis). Later, she became a fellow of the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) in Paris. At the Institute of Optics she continued to work on optical properties of glasses and amorphous materials under the direction of Prof Lucien Prod’homme and Prof Aniuta Winter-Klein (glass microhardness and experimental Rayleigh light scattering) and obtained a Doctorate Diploma from the University of Paris VI (France, 1971). In 1972 she contacted Prof Armando Durán, (known for his pioneering work on night myopia along with J M Otero in 1941-43) and who was currently a professor of Optics at UCM. She joined the Optics Department of UCM as an assistant professor and started theoretical studies on light scattering defects in isotropic media. She presented a Ph D dissertation (with honors) on this subject in June 1977. In 1981 she became an associate professor and in 1999 obtained the Chair of Optics at the same department. She has been a visiting professor and researcher in various international institutions, Bremen University, University of California at Berkeley at the Visual Center Studies leaded by Prof Jay M Enoch, University of Missouri Saint Louis at the group of Prof V Lakshminarayanan, National Research Council of Canada in Ottawa, Institute for Optics and Astrophysics (INAOE, Puebla) in Mexico, among others. She has participated as co-director and lecturer in various Winter College in Optics, at the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP, Trieste) in Italy.
She was Head of the Department of Optics during the period (2006-2010). Dr Calvo is currently an Emeritus Professor at the Department of Optics, Faculty of Physics Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid where she continues with her labor on academic activities and research. She has authored and co-authored more than 200 scientific publications, articles, chapters, and conference papers. She has edited and co-edited four books (one in Spanish) and has published one book on the Alhazen’s Book of Optics (in Spanish). Her main areas of interest are holography, holographic materials, light scattering, image processing, optical information processing, neutron optics and history of optics.Very recently she has contributed 2 articles to Asian J Phys and is willing to serve AJP as an Editor.
She was President of the International Commission for Optics, ICO, (term 2008-2011)

Vasudevan Lakshminarayanan is a professor of Vision science, physics, ECE, and Systems Design engineering at the University of Waterloo. Previously, he was at University of Missouri. He received his Ph D from the University of California, Berkeley in 1985 under the supervision of Prof Jay M Enoch.

He has served as chair of education for the OPTICA Society, a member of the board of directors, technical editor for optics letters, OPN, and others. He is also a founding member of the Active Learning in Optics and Photonics program of UNESCO. He has published widely in various areas, run a multi-disciplinary lab at Waterloo, and has been a visiting professor at many places including University of Michigan, Complutense University of Madrid, Indian Institute of Technology, in New Delhi, among others.
His main areas of interest are Classical and visual optics, Optical system design, science and engineering, Psychophysics/human factors, Visual perception, visual optics math modelling, Biomedical image processing. In these areas he has authored and co-authored over 350 publications (papers, conference proceedings, chapters, etc.) including areas ranging from molecular spectroscopy, biomedical engineering, applied mathematics, cognitive science and perception, optical science and engineering, science education/policy as well as in physiological optics/vision science/ophthalmology/optometry.
He has co-edited ten books and more than ten book chapters.
He received the 2013 Esther Hoffman Beller Medal. He has also received the SPIE Educator award. In addition to being a Fellow of the OPTICA Society, he is also a Fellow of APS, SPIE, AAAS, and IoP.

Shrikant Bharadwaj completed his undergraduate degree in Optometry from the Elite School of Optometry, Chennai and a Ph D in Vision Science from the University of California Berkeley School of Optometry, USA. After completing his post-doctoral training in Vision Science at the Indiana University School of Optometry, USA, Dr Bharadwaj returned to the L V Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI) in Hyderabad as a DBT Ramalingaswami Fellow in 2009. He then established the Visual Optics research laboratory at LVPEI with the overall agenda of understanding how the optics of the eye influences spatial vision and depth vision. Dr Bharadwaj uses a combination of experimental, behavioral and computational techniques to address this research agenda. His laboratory actively publishes research work in international peer reviewed vision science journals and the research work is generously supported by extramural grants from the Government of India and the optical industry. Dr Bharadwaj also serves on the editorial board of Nature Scientific Reports, Optometry and Vision Science, PLoS One and the Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. He also serves as a peer-reviewer for almost all optometry and vision science journals. In addition to his research work, Dr Bharadwaj serves as the Network Associate Director of the Brien Holden Institute of Optometry and Vision Sciences at LVPEI. He is also actively involved in teaching undergraduate and post-graduate students of optometry at the L V Prasad Eye Institute.

PremNandhini Satgunam received her bachelor’s degree in Optometry from the Elite School of Optometry, Sankara Nethralaya BITS, Pilani. She was awarded the Best Outgoing Student in her class. She received her MS and Ph D in Vision Science from the Ohio State University, USA. During that time she has received many awards including the Minnie Flaura Turner memorial award for impaired vision research. She was included into the list of Notable Centennial Alumna of The Ohio State University, College of Optometry. She worked as a postdoctoral fellow in the field of vision rehabilitation at Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School. She has been a recipient of several grants and awards, with the recent one from ARVO Foundation’s Pfizer Ophthalmics Carl Camras Translational Research Award (2022). She has presented in many national and international conferences and is well published in peer-reviewed journals. Her research work is in the area of pediatric vision rehabilitation and binocular vision. As a clinician she sees patients with binocular vision disorders. She is presently based at L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Asian Journal of Physics
(A Publication Not for Profit)
Volume 32, Nos 3 & 4 (2023)


Optometry in India: Vision of Professor Jay M Enoch and its present status
Anuradha Narayanan, Krishna Kumar Ramani, Aiswaryah Radhakrishnan,
PremNandhini Satgunam, Vasudevan Lakshminarayanan and Shrikant R Bharadwaj127

On the etymology of the word iris: from the name of a God to the eye
Sergio Barbero137

Visible electromagnetic radiation in the eye
Ramón F Alvarez-Estrada and Maria L Calvo143

Experimental determination of the MTF of a diffraction limited image forming system: an approximation to the eye pupil characterization
Elena Alonso-Redondo, Maria L Calvo, and Vasudevan Lakshminarayanan149

Microsaccadic eye movement orientations are equivocal in the presence of competing stimuli
Eswar Kurni, Manish Reddy Yedulla and PremNandhini Satgunam159

Hemianopic visual field loss in a young child tested with Pediatric Perimeter: A case report
Monika Thakur, Goura Chattannavar, and PremNandhini Satgunam167

The structure of the Maxwell spot centroid
Albert Le Floch, and Guy Ropars173

Clinical validation of an automatic system to categorize tear film lipid layer patterns
M J Giráldez, C García-Resúa, H Pena-Verdeal, J Garcia-Queiruga, and E Yebra-Pimentel185

The Eikonal equation via adaptive control theory
Vasudevan Lakshminarayanan207

X-ray micro-CT for morphology analysis of ant’s head
D Marcos, P Gómez del Campo, S Arganda, J Montero, A Belarra, T Alieva and M Chevalier211

From waveguides to directional antennas – understanding the optics of retinal photoreceptors
Brian VohnsenA1

An asymmetric hybrid image encryption algorithm using fractional Hartley transform, Bird Wings Map, and embedded watermarking
Joyti, Sachin, Phool Singh, and Kehar SinghA11

News and Events
USA Visit of Prof (Dr) Beer Pal Singh, Department of Physics, CCS University, Meerut during 04 – 22 March, 2023

Dr. Beer Pal Singh, Professor, Department of Physics visited United States of America (USA) to present a Research Paper at American Physical Society (APS) March 2023 Meeting, held at Las Vegas during 05-10 March, 2023. APS March Meeting 2023 was one of the major events for Physics professionals & students across the globe to present their work. More than 10,000 papers were presented at this International Meeting. The visit was funded by Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India.