ASIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS

An International Peer Reviewed Research Journal
Frequency : Monthly,
ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Editor-In-Chief (Hon.) :
Dr. V.K. Rastogi
e-mail:[email protected]
[email protected]

 AJP ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Vol 30, No 6, June 2021

Asian
Journal of Physics


Volume 30, No 6, June 2021


A Special Issue Dedicated
to
Prof D Narayana Rao
Guest Edited By : G Vijaya Prakash, B Maruthi Manoj & Shivakiran Bhaktha B N
Anita Publications
FF-43, 1st Floor, Mangal Bazar, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi-110 092, India


About Prof D N Rao

Prof D Narayana Rao was born on May 1, 1949 at Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh, India. He obtained all his elementary, high school, graduation and post-graduation from his native place before moving to IIT Kanpur for his Ph D studies. His Master’s degree (1971) was in Physics completed at S. V. University Post Graduate Centre (now known as Sri Krishnadevaraya University). Doctoral work was on spectroscopic studies on rare-earth doped single crystals. After completion of his Ph. D work (1978), he spent a year at IIT Delhi Physics Department as a Research Associate and moved back to IIT Kanpur as a Scientific Officer in Laser Labs. In 1982 he moved to State University of New York at Buffalo as a Visiting Scientist and spent next eight years at different institutions in USA (Research Scientist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA, University of Massachusetts at Boston, University of Massachusetts at Lowell). He joined as a Reader at University of Hyderabad in 1990 and became a full Professor in 1998. He had many years of collaboration with University of Trento, Italy. After retirement in 2014, he became UGC BSR Faculty Fellow, then he was awarded the DAE Raja Ramanna Fellowship. Currently he is an Emeritus Professor at School of Physics, University of Hyderabad. His current research interests are in nonlinear optics, excited state dynamics, laser direct writing, surface structure modifications through laser irradiation, 2D IR and Optical spectroscopies and fluorescence spectroscopy, 1D and 3D photonic crystals.
Academic and Research Achievements: Prof. Narayana Rao was involved in the development of MW and mm wave spectroscopy, CO2, FIR, ps and fs laser systems, study of ultrafast dynamics of excited states, transient grating spectroscopy, waveguide CARS that can achieve mono-layer sensitivity, spectral diffusion studies in organic solids, measurement of the second and third order susceptibilities through EFISHG, SHG, FWM, Z-scan, electro-absorption, Surface enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), green synthesis of metal nanoparticles and their medical applications, optical limiting, etc. He studied ultrafast phenomena in the fs time scales using a ns laser, through what is known as incoherent laser spectroscopy. He demonstrated Pancharatnam phase through a very simple experiment. He demonstrated anti-Stokes emission at 570 nm with 633 nm He-Ne laser. His recent studies on spectral shift through interferometry demonstrates its utility for the measurement of displacements as small as few nm. He has made an excellent progress in the area of optical limiting, where the limiter transmits linearly in the low intensity regime but limits to a threshold at high intensities. His studies on local fields throw light on real and virtual cavities appearing in the literature. Recent studies also include super continuum generation, subsurface 700 nm waveguide channel preparations in glasses and polymers. In addition to the development of research labs at University of Hyderabad, he developed a very good Laser Physics teaching lab for the Master’s students.
He published over 300 research papers in peer-reviewed international journals and guided 22 PhD students. Many students from other institutions completed their Ph D work from his lab. Completed 20 DST, DAE, ISRO, CSIR and DRDO projects. Has a citation index of 7150, h index of 44, and i10 index of 143 as on 2020. He was an invited speaker at many national and international seminars. He is a reviewer for most of the optics Journals, was Director of SERC School on Nonlinear Optics, Convenor of National Laser Symposium and International Conference on Photonics. He has a Patent: All optical devices, US patent no. 5,757,525
He was awarded senior NRC Fellowship (USA). He is a senior Life Member of Optical Society of America, Life Member Optical Society of India, Life Member Indian Laser Association, Fellow of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh Academies of Science, Elected president of Indian Laser Association, served as Editorial Board member of Pramana, Journal Frontiers in Physics: Optics and Photonics. He served as a Member of the DST – PAC, FIST, Fast Track, CRG, NPDF and Early Career schemes for more than 25 years.

About Guest Editors

Prof G Vijaya Prakash has been in the intense research of nanophotonics and photonic technologies for more than two decades. His enthusiastic initiative in developing collaborations across the world and passion on research enabled him to explore a diverse range of research topics. His scholarly work is evidenced by more than 180 scientific journal publications and his research has been demonstrated in many major international conference talks/presentations. So far he has guided/guiding 25 Ph Ds and guided more than 40 post graduate students. He holds research grants of more than 06 Crs, as PI and ~Rs.60Cr as Co-PI from reputed Indian and abroad funding agencies. He is recipient of prestigious research awards from Italy (INFM), UK (Royal Society, UKIERI) and from India (High Impact research of IIT Delhi). He has been a visiting professor/faculty to University of Cambridge (UK) and University of Southampton (UK) from the past 15 years. He delivered many invited talks in India and abroad (UK, Italy, Singapore, Spain, France and Egypt).
Currently he is serving as a Institute Chair Professor and group leader of nanophotonics research labs at IIT Delhi and holds several administrative responsibilities such as Professor in-charge of academic facilities and institute time-table in-charge.
Further details can be found from Website: http://nanophotonics.iitd.ac.in/
IITD profile http://iitd.irins.org/profile/70731
ORCID : https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0450-3767.


Dr Shivakiran Bhaktha B N received his Masters of Science (Physics) from Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthi Nilayam, India in 2003 and Ph D. from the School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, India in 2006. As a part of his post-doctoral fellowship he has visited various laboratories: Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, France, CNR-IFN, CSMFO Lab., Trento, Italy, LPMC-CNRS, Nice, France and TIFR, Mumbai, India. His areas of interest include waves in random media, glass photonics, glass-ceramics, photonic crystals, microresonators and optofluidics. He joined the Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India in 2011 and is currently serving as an Associate Professor. More details can be found on:
Website: http://iitkgp.ac.in/department/PH/faculty/ph-kiranbhaktha
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4846-8262


Dr. B Maruthi Manoj obtained his Ph D in Physics from the University of Hyderabad. He did his post-doctoral research from the University of Electro-Communications, Japan. He joined as Assistant Professor in the Department of Physics, IIT Kharagpur in 2013. He received DST-Inspire Faculty Award in 2013. His current research interests are in Singular Optics, Correlation Optics, Spectral Interferometry and Optical Holography.
Website: http://www.iitkgp.ac.in/department/PH/faculty/ph-bmmanoj
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0442-3599

 

Appreciation in Honor of Professor D. Narayana Rao

It gives me great pleasure to express my admiration and share Prof. D. Narayana Rao’s scientific contributions to the field of laser spectroscopy and nonlinear optics. I had a chance to know him in 1988 when he joined my group as a CSIR Pool Officer. He took very active interest in establishing a Holography lab and introduced several experiments for the M Sc students. At that time, I was looking for a scientist who could develop experimental laboratories in laser spectroscopy. Narayana had the right background, having being trained in some of the best laboratories in India and USA. Thus, we decided to hire him for the middle level faculty position and provided funding for starting research laboratory.
He came to me in search of a position in India after working for many years in Prof. Paras N. Prasad’s lab at State University of New York at Buffalo, NY, USA. He did his Ph D under the guidance of Prof. Ramachandra Rao Dasari, and the well-known scientist Professor, P. Venkateswarlu. His Ph D work was on “Site selective fluorescence spectroscopy from the rare-earth doped calcium fluoride crystals”. From his resume, I came to know that he joined the IIT Kanpur in the year 1971 after completing Master’s Degree from Sri Venkateswara University Post Graduate Centre at Anantapur in Andhra Pradesh. At IIT Kanpur he developed experimental skills on microwave spectroscopy of different organic gases, MW-Infrared double resonance to derive the absorption coefficients, distortion constants, harmonic generators to reach up to 54 GHz, Rare-earth doped crystal growth, development of CO2 laser, etc. After completion of his Ph D in 1978, he worked as a Research Associate under the joint guidance of Profs. K. P. Jain, S. C. Abbi and S. Chopra to develop the Raman Spectroscopy lab using an Ar+ laser in the Department of Physics, IIT Delhi. After working for a year there, he returned to IIT Kanpur as a scientific officer to assist Prof. Putcha Venkateswarlu. In 1981, he was offered a post-doctoral position in the Photonics Laboratory, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA under Prof Paras N. Prasad. He told me that quite a lot of development responsibility fell on him as he was from physics background and with good amount of instrumentation experience. His first publication was on the development of mixed gas FIR laser excited by CO2 laser, a region which is now popular with the name of THz. He went on working on ns Nd:YAG, ps ML and QS Nd:YAG laser, fs lasers staring from 300 fs to 60 fs dye laser at SUNYAB, USA. He started working on nonlinear optics problems such as: Transient grating spectroscopy, Coherent anti-Stokes Raman, CSRS, waveguide CARS, diffused reflectivity with FIR lasers, spectral diffusion in organic solids at supercooled liquid He temperatures.
After joining University of Hyderabad, he developed a strong collaboration with Dr. Dasari and Prof. M. Feld of MIT, Prof. D. Gopal Rao at UMASS, Boston, USA and University of Trento, Italy. It is quite amazing that he could produce nearly twenty-two Ph D scholars from this lab, which was an empty hall in 1991. He interacted with many scientists at University of Hyderabad and other institutions; to name a few Prof. Bhaskar Maiya, Prof. T. P. Radhakrishnan, Prof. Chandrasekher from Chemistry, Prof. Reddanna from Life Sciences. Nearly a dozen students from other departments and institutions have completed their Ph D work from his lab. Most of his students have settled as faculty members at different institutions in India and abroad.
He helped Prof. Tewari in establishing the ACRHEM in the initial stages. Three of his students are now professors in ACRHEM working on laser applications to high energy materials. He was quite dynamic in writing proposals to different funding agencies and received nearly 18 projects during a period of 25 years as a faculty in the School of Physics, University of Hyderabad. He also had three major projects with Trento University, Italy and one project with Australian National University as collaborative study in the area of nonlinear optics.
He worked on several area of spectroscopy and nonlinear optics: Microwave spectroscopy, Development of lasers, Fluorescence spectroscopy, crystal growth, Wolf shift, Spectral Interferometry, Incoherent Laser Spectroscopy, Studies on Local Fields, Ultrafast Dynamics, Transient Grating Spectroscopy, Coherent Anti- Stokes Raman Spectroscopy, Nonlinear Spectroscopy, Four Wave Mixing, Z-scan, 1D and 3D Photonic Crystals, Nanoplasmonics, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, Supercontinuum Generation, Laser Ablation, Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles, and Laser Direct Writing.
In the initial stages I asked him to work on our theoretical predictions on spectral interferometry and Wolf shifts-he did do it successfully and produced a sensitive method of measuring refractive index. Given his expertise on rare earth halides, I asked him to prepare materials where refractive index could be controlled so that one test different models of local fields in dense media. He did such a study successfully which was published in Physical Review Letters.
He is close to three hundred refereed publications in international journals and presented an equal number in international conferences. He received NRC (USA) Fellowship, UGC-BSR Faculty Fellowship and DAE Raja Ramanna Fellowship. He is a Fellow of Academies of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. As an Emeritus Professor, he is working on Antireflecting surfaces, Superhydrophobic surfaces, 1D and 2D Photonic crystal structures.
I have felt a great deal of satisfaction that I made the right choice in hiring him and entrusting him with the responsibility of developing modern laser spectroscopy. It must be added that in nineties, his lab became one of the few labs in India devoted to modern laser spectroscopy. I wish him all success in life.

G S Agarwal
Mitchell Physics Building IQSE 574, 4242 TAMU
College Station, TX 77843-4242
[email protected]
April 19,2021, Monday.


I’m very grateful to the Guest Editors of the Asian Journal of Physics for allowing me to submit this short appreciation letter for D Narayana Rao. I am highly honored to write this letter to appreciate the fantastic scientific career of Prof. D. Narayana Rao as well as to thank him for his deep friendship.
I grew to know Prof Rao well in Hyderabad, in 2003, when the framework of the organization of the first edition of the ITPAR program – India-Trento Program for Advanced Research became effectively operational. At that time, I appreciated his valuable competence, as well as the high quality of his research. During the years that followed, I have been very impressed by the research activity of Prof Rao and by the effective management of the laboratory working under his responsibility.

Let me stress again the crucial role of Prof Rao in strengthening the scientific collaboration in the ITPAR framework. Thanks to him , it was possible for my group to have several brilliant Ph D students coming from his internationally recognized research laboratory. Among them let me mention Dr Shivakiran Narasimha Bantwal Bhaktha, Dr Krishna Chaitanya Vishunubhatla, Dr Sreeramulu Valligatla, very active and motivated young researchers that enriched my laboratory both from a human and scientific point of view.

Maurizio Ferrari and D Narayana Rao

Prof Rao visited Trento unfortunately only few times in the ITPAR frameworks but these shorts visits were enough to maintain a very pleasant impression of him with my family and the colleagues in Trento. His lectures and seminars in Trento and in the ITPAR conferences have been fantastic, highlighting his incredible power as speaker. In fact, he presents complex phenomena and new physics in a very pleasant and appealing tutorial approach allowing even the non-experts to benefit from the lectures. He shared with me and colleagues his enviable knowledge in the physical-chemistry of optical materials for photonics, glasses and crystals activated by rare earth ions and transition metals, phosphors, as well as the nonlinear dynamics of complex photonic systems.

(Left to right) Maurizio Ferrari, M. Ghanashyam Krishna, D. Narayana Rao, A K Bhatnagar (Photograph taken in Hyderabad in December 2003 after signing the agreement for India-Trento Programme for Advanced Research (ITPAR))

You would have certainly noted the outstanding career of Prof Rao, which reflects his strong technical and scientific commitment, his exceptional teaching capacity, his enviable international reputation, his charismatic role of organizer of important scientific events and leader of innovative international research projects.
Prof D Narayana Rao has an enviable record of academic and professional achievements. He has distinguished himself by carrying out pioneering research in the field of photonics as well as in applied to material science. It is of great importance of the Scientific School that he developed in Hyderabad and now his pupils are renowned scientist in the public and private research institutions in the world.
In conclusion, let me tell you that I’m honored to be a Friend of Prof. Rao, a person so active who has distinguished himself by carrying out significant research in the field of photonics and effectively building several important scientific events.

Maurizio Ferrari
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche,
CNR-IFN, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie-
Trento; [email protected] it


I met Prof Dasari Narayana Rao for the first time, during my early years in the University of Hyderabad, sometime in late 1992 or early ‘93. I had got interested in nonlinear optics (NLO) around that time, and was trying to learn the intricacies of the subject; I was even hoping to develop (with my Ph D student, Ravi) some new organic materials that could potentially be interesting in this field. When I heard that a colleague in the School of Physics, DNR (as Prof Rao is popularly known), is an expert on experimental laser physics, I thought that it would provide a wonderful opportunity to me to learn and perhaps initiate some research on NLO materials. I still recall an afternoon, when I walked over to his laboratory at the other end of the Science Complex which housed all the science schools of the University in those days, and met him.

Photo 1. DNR, TPR and Prof. Kwang Sup-Lee at the International Conference on Photo-responsive Organics and Polymers 2001, Cheju Island, Korea, August 2001.

We had a brief chat; I could already sense the enthusiasm and passion he had for science and research. He showed a great interest in studying new organic materials with potential NLO responses. This set off a very fruitful collaboration that led to our groups jointly publishing several research articles on a special class of molecular crystals (based on the diaminodicyanoquinodimethane family of molecules) exhibiting efficient second harmonic generation. The structure-function correlations in these novel materials were particularly exciting to unravel; the meticulous and rigorous experimental studies guided and often personally carried out by DNR, were key to the success of these explorations.

His ingenuity in designing the experiments, organizing the optics and electronics to carry them out (often with home-grown smart tricks), and analyzing the observations were remarkable. It was much more than just the excitements and tribulations of experimental research for me; it was a great learning experience. The saga of setting up and successfully running an electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG) experiment is unforgettable. Through tireless effort of our groups with several students who got involved along the way, we managed to implement an innovative protocol for the EFISHG experiment and data analysis to determine molecular hyperpolarizability; I consider this work as one of the major milestones in my own research efforts during the past three decades, and I owe it mainly to DNR. In later years, we also ventured into nanocomposite thin films and their optical limiting applications.

Photo 2. DNR in transit, en route to Korea in 2001

I have found in DNR, the marks of a genuine and extremely knowledgeable scientist, an unassuming and remarkably friendly persona, and a great human being. I cherish my interaction and friendship with him, and wish him on this occasion, a healthy long life and continued immersion in his favorite research domains.

T. P. Radhakrishnan
School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad, India
[email protected]


I first came across Prof Narayanarao’s name in 1991 in publications relating to nonlinear optics using pico and femto second lasers from Prof Paras Prasad’s photonics lab, State University of New York, Buffalo. As a physicist in a chemistry lab, he was obviously responsible for the instrumentation development activity. He was just recruited as a Reader in the University of Hyderabad Physics department. I invited him to spend a few months in our lab and our interaction started in 1992 summer. His experimental skills far exceeded my expectations and in a short time, along with my graduate student Francisco Aranda, succeeded in developing the four wave mixing and Z-scan techniques with frequency doubled picosecond Nd:YAG laser. We rapidly published third order nonlinear optical susceptibility measurements of a variety of organic materials- porphyrins and pthalocyanines, demonstrating saturable and reverse saturable absorption with potential applications in optical power limiting for laser eye and sensor protection. He was part of our team as short term visiting scientist for six summers and once for over a year with NRC Fellowship. He contributed significantly to our joint publications also on all optical logic gates using thin films of the biological material Bacteriorhodopsin resulting in a related patent. His experience in our lab helped him in accelerated progress of NLO activity particularly relating to four wave mixing and Z-scan in his own lab at the University of Hyderabad. As far as I am aware from open literature, he was the first in India reporting good results on third order NLO. I was spending a few days visiting his labs during our annual visits to India. His wife Chitra, well known in international banking circles as Director of JNIDB, an IDBI Institute in Hyderabad, also accompanied him quite a few times resulting in social interaction of our families. His son Aditya completed his Masters thesis in our lab on optical Fourier techniques for early detection breast cancer.
His professional scientific career spans over five decades involving several areas- microwave spectroscopy of gases, far infrared CO2 laser, nonlinear optics activity relating to transient grating spectroscopy, coherent anti Stokes Raman scattering etc using nano, pico and femto second solid state lasers. After a brilliant academic record with a Masters degree in Physics from Sri Venkateswara University Anantapur campus (which happens to be his native place), he joined IIT Kanpur as a graduate student with the famous Prof Putcha Venkateswarlu and was awarded the Ph D degree in 1978 for an excellent thesis on microwave spectroscopy of gases. He deserves lot of credit for developing indigenously most of the instrumentation- CO2 lasers, harmonic generators etc. After a year at IIT, Delhi and back to IIT Kanpur as postdoc, he spent a few years in Prof. Paras Prasad’s Photonics Lab, SUNY. He was also briefly at MIT Laser Lab with Prof. Mike Feld. He joined the University of Hyderabd Physics Department as Reader in 1990. With such a wide background he took off at a fast pace in professional activity building his labs from scratch- guided 22 Ph.D scholars, also involved in a few more from other departments on campus, publishing over 300 papers in peer reviewed journals, presenting many invited talks at national and international conferences. He developed productive domestic and international collaborations enriching his activities with faculties at University of Hyderabad in physics, chemistry, biology; Trento University, Italy and Australian National University. His collaboration with Prof S P Tewari in establishing ACRHEM at University of Hyderabad in the initial stages is significant. It is currently being managed by his former Ph.D. scholar and three of his former students are faculty members associated with the project. I visited this lab recently, one of the most luxurious in the world.
Most of his former students are now prominent faculty members in academic institutions in India and abroad. Mention should also be made of his collaboration with Prof P Hariharan relating to work on interferometer using white light source to demonstrate Pancharatnam (Berry) phase leading to lot of activity on Berry phase and applications.
His extensive teaching activities over the years also need recognition. He developed Modern Physics, Laser Lab courses; Nonlinear Optics, spectroscopy and Optical Resonance theory courses for Masters students. Exploiting Lab View program he integrated the software to replace expensive equipment which also helps students achieve better quality in data acquisition and analysis. The Laser Lab course stands out as extremely useful to the students in setting up many linear and nonlinear optics experiments- Holography, self-focusing of laser light, interference, diffraction, polarization, electro optics and magneto optics etc.
His professional activities are well rounded which is unusual. His unique capabilities are noticeable in organizing the National Laser Symposium in 1999 and the International Conference on Optoelectronics, Fiber Optics and Photonics at the University of Hyderabad in 2006 with participation of over 800 scientists from all over the world. I happen to be Co-PI with him on the NSF proposal which awarded travel grants to six invitees from US to the conference. They boosted the reputation of the University of Hyderabad as a center of optics research activity.
He has not slowed down even after official retirement in 2014. With prestigious awards of UGC-BSR Faculty Fellowship and DAE Raja Ramanna Fellowship and currently as Emeritus, he continues activity practically at the same pace, currently working on 1D, 2D Photonic structures, visible and IR spectroscopy. He was elected as Fellow of Academies of Andhra Pradesh and Telengana. I am sure he will be productive for at least a few more years.
D Rao
University of Massachusetts Boston, USA
[email protected]

 

CONTENTS


Spectral Interferometry: Some aspects of complex optical fields
Nirmal K Viswanathan831

Recent advances in optics (RAO): Contribution of D Narayana Rao in optics and photonics research in India
Jitendra Nath Acharyya and G Vijaya Prakash 837

Ultrafast nonlinear optical and spectroscopic studies at the University of Hyderabad, India
S Venugopal Rao and S Hamad849

Higher order photonic stop-bands and random lasing in microflower decorated polystyrene opals
N N Subhashree Ojha, Anirban Sarkar and B N Shivakiran Bhaktha863

Advances in applications of LIBS in India: A Review
Akash Kumar Tarai, Rajendhar Junjuri and Manoj Kumar Gundawar 871

Coherent plasmonic absorption in the femtosecond regime
Venkatram Nalla, Xu Fang, João Valente, Handong Sun and Nikolay I Zheludev 889

Transverse optical current in off-axis vortex beams
Satyajit Maji and Maruthi M Brundavanam 899

Multi-photon absorption properties of semiconducting nanomaterials
Venkatram Nalla907

Undoped and iron doped Bi12SiO20 crystals as optical limiters
P Prem Kiran917

Ultrafast electron injection kinetics and effect of plasmonic silver nanoparticle at organic dye-TiO2 interface
Chinmoy Biswas, Md Soif Ahmed and Sai Santosh Kumar Raavi933

Asian Journal of Physics  Vol. 30 No 6, 2021, 831-836

Spectral Interferometry: Some aspects of complex optical fields
Nirmal K Viswanathan
School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad- 500 046, India
Dedicated to Professor D N Rao for his significant contributions and pioneering works in the
fields of spectroscopy, optics, nonlinear optics and photonics


Interference fringes in the space-frequency domain are as important to the understanding of complex light fields and their interaction with material as are the traditional interference fringes observed, measured and used in the space-time domain. A short journey through this fundamentally important area of research is presented here, as one begins to understand and unravel the underlying connection between interference fringes in complementary domains. With the recent knowledge of the significance of optical singularities and the non-separability of polarization – optical mode, connecting the behavior of and the information contained in complex optical fields in the space-frequency domain has only become richer. Some recent results are presented to emphasize the underlying connections. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Optical interferometry, Spectral fringes, Polarization interferometry.

https://doi.org/10.54955/AJP.30.6.2021.831-836


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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 6, 2021, 837-848

Recent advances in optics (RAO): Contribution of D Narayana Rao in optics and photonics research in India
Jitendra Nath Acharyya and G Vijaya Prakash
Nanophotonics Lab, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
New Delhi- 110 016, India
Dedicated to Professor D N Rao for his significant contributions and pioneering works in the
fields of spectroscopy, optics, nonlinear optics and photonics


The first documented speculations on light were found in oriental and Greek schools of philosophy. The investigations on the light in India were rooted way back to the ancient era. The Indian Samkhya, Nyaya, and Vaisheshika identified light or fire (Tejas) as one of the key elements among the five elementary things of the universe. The pioneering results of optics and spectroscopy were witnessed in the era of stellar people like Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose and Sir C V Raman. The research has then taken a new directive into the development of nonlinear optics and photonics after the invention of the laser. The present article reviews the past few decades pioneering works of Prof. D Narayana Rao, an experimental physicist, in the context of optics and photonics in India. The most notable contributions of Prof Rao, introduced in India for the first time, are white-light interferometry, degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM), electric-field induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG), incoherent laser spectroscopy (using dye laser), and femtosecond lasers for creating nano/microstructures. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Nonlinear Optics, Z-scan, White-light interferometry, DFWM, EFISHG, Incoherent laser spectroscopy

https://doi.org/10.54955/AJP.30.6.2021.837-849


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  3. Rao D N, Kumar V N, Experimental demonstration of spectral modification in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, J Mod Opt, 41(1994)1757–1763.
  4. Kumar V N, Chandrasekhar Y, Rao D N, Measurement of optical constants of thin polymer films using spectrally resolved white light interferometry, Pramana, 47(1996)163–170.
  5. Prakash G V, Rao D N, Bhatnagar A K, Linear optical properties of niobium-based tellurite glasses, Solid State Commun, 119(2001)39–44.
  6. Prakash G V, Jagannathan R, Rao D N, Physical and optical properties of NASICON-type phosphate glasses, Mater Lett, 57(2002)134–140.
  7. Brundavanam M M, Viswanathan N K, Rao D N, Spectral anomalies due to temporal correlation in a white-light interferometer, Opt Lett, 32(2007)2279–2281.
  8. Rao S V, Studies of Excited State Dynamics, Third Order Optical Nonlinearity and Nonlinear Absorption in C60, Porphyrins, and Phthalocyanines Using Incoherent Laser Spectroscopy, Ph D Thesis, University of Hyderabad, India, March 2000.
  9. Rao S V, Giribabu L, Maiya B G, Rao D N, A novel observation in the measurement of ultrafast relaxation times using incoherent light, Curr Sci, 72(1997)957-960.
  10. Prasad J, Rao D N, Prasad P N, An optically-pumped multigas Far-IR laser, Int J Infrared Milli, 4(1983)15–19.
  11. Rao D N, Naga Srinivas N K M, Gangopadhyay P, Radhakrishnan T P, Internal cancellation of electric field induced second harmonic generation in solvent mixtures and solutions: An efficient protocol for the determination of molecular hyperpolarizability, J Phys Chem A, 108(2004)5213–5219.
  12. Gangopadhyay P, Sharma S, Rao A J, Rao D N, Cohen S, Agranat I, Radhakrishnan T P, Optical second harmonic generation in achiral bis (n-alkylamino) dicyanoquinodimethanes: Alkyl chain length as the design element, Chem Mater, 11(1999)466–472.
  13. Ravi M, Rao D N, Cohen S, Agranat I, Radhakrishnan T P, Push− pull quinonoid compounds: Enhanced powder SHG utilizing the effect of chiral centers on the dipole alignment, Chem Mater, 9(1997)830–837.
  14. Ravi M, Gangopadhyay P, Rao D N, Cohen S, Agranat I, Radhakrishnan T P, Dual influence of H-bonding on the solid-state second-harmonic generation of a chiral quinonoid compound, Chem Mater, 10(1998)2371–2377.
  15. Patil P S, Dharmaprakash S M, Ramakrishna K, Fun H K, Kumar R S S, Rao D N, Second harmonic generation and crystal growth of new chalcone derivatives. J Cryst Growth, 303(2007)520–524.
  16. Thiel C W, Four-wave mixing and its applications. Faculty of Washington, Washington DC, (2008).
  17. Kumar R S S, Rao S V, Giribabu L, Rao D N, Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of alkyl phthalocyanines investigated using degenerate four-wave mixing technique, Opt Mater, 31(2009)1042–1047.
  18. Rao D V G L N, Aranda F J, Rao D N, Chen Z, Akkara J A, Kaplan D L, Nakashima M, All-optical logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin films, Opt Commun, 127(1996)193–199.
  19. Aranda F J, Garimella R, McCarthy N F, Rao D N, Rao D V G L N, Chen Z, Akkara J A, Kaplan D L, Roach J F, All-optical light modulation in bacteriorhodopsin films, Appl Phys Lett, 67(1995)599–601.
  20. Rao D V G L N, Aranda F J, Rao D N, Chen Z, Akkara J A, Nakashima M, All-optical logical gates with bacteriorhodopsin films, Proc. SPIE 2897, Electro-Optic and Second Harmonic Generation Materials, Devices, and Applications, (3 October 1996); doi.org/10.1117/12.252925.
  21. Rao D N, Swiatkiewicz J, Chopra P, Ghoshal S K, Prasad P N, Third order nonlinear optical interactions in thin films of poly-p-phenylenebenzobisthiazole polymer investigated by picosecond and subpicosecond degenerate four wave mixing, Appl Phys Lett, 48(1986)1187–1189.
  22. Sheik-Bahae M, Said A A, Wei T H, Hagan D J, Van Stryland E W, Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam, IEEE J Quantum Elect, 26(1990)760–769.
  23. Acharyya J N, Rao D N, Adnan M, Raghavendar C, Gangineni R B, Prakash G V, Giant Optical Nonlinearities of Photonic Minibands in Metal–Dielectric Multilayers, Adv Mater Interfaces, 7(2020)2000035; doi.org/10.1002/admi.202000035.
  24. Rao D N, Blanco E, Rao S V, Aranda F J, Rao D V G L N, Tripathy S, Akkara J A, A Comparative Study of СбО, Pthalocyanine, and Porphyrin for Optical Limiting Over the Visible Region, J Sci Ind Res, 57(1998)664–667.
  25. Rao S V, Rao D N, Akkara J A, DeCristofano B S, Rao D V G L N, Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan, Chem Phys Lett, 297(1998)491–498.
  26. Kiran P P, Shivakiran Bhaktha B N, Rao D N, De G, Nonlinear optical properties and surface-plasmon enhanced optical limiting in Ag–Cu nanoclusters co-doped in SiO2 Sol-Gel films, J Appl Phys, 96(2004)6717–6723.
  27. Sathyavathi R, Krishna M B, Rao S V, Saritha R, Rao D N, Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coriandrum sativum leaf extract and their application in nonlinear optics, Adv Sci Lett, 3(2010)138–143.
  28. Kumar R S S, Harsha S S, Rao D N, Broadband supercontinuum generation in a single potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal achieved in tandem with sum frequency generation, Appl Phys B, 86(2007)615–621.
  29. Srinivas N N, Harsha S S, Rao D N, Femtosecond supercontinuum generation in a quadratic nonlinear medium (KDP), Opt Express, 13(2005)3224–3229.
  30. Joannopoulos J D, Johnson S G, Winn J N, Meade R D, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light – 2nd Edn, (Princeton University Press), 2008.
  31. Guddala S, Dwivedi V K, Prakash G V, Rao D N, Raman scattering enhancement in photon-plasmon resonance mediated metal-dielectric microcavity, J Appl Phys, 114(2013)224309; doi.org/10.1063/1.4842995.
  32. Guddala S, Kamanoor S A, Chiappini A, Ferrari M, Rao D N, Experimental investigation of photonic band gap influence on enhancement of Raman-scattering in metal-dielectric colloidal crystals, J Appl Phys, 112(2012)084303; doi.org/10.1063/1.4758315.
  33. Chiasera A, Jasieniak J, Normani S, Valligatla S, Lukowiak A, Taccheo S, Rao D N, Righini G C, Marciniak M, Martucci A, Ferrari M, Hybrid 1-D dielectric microcavity: fabrication and spectroscopic assessment of glass-based sub-wavelength structures, Ceram Int, 41(2015)7429–7433.
  34. Chiasera A, Jasieniak J, Normani S, Valligatla S, Lukowiak A, Taccheo S, Rao D N, Righini G C, Marciniak M, Martucci A, Ferrari M, Fabrication and Spectroscopic Assessment of Glass-Based Sub-Wavelength Structures for Hybrid 1-D Dielectric 633-nm Laser Microcavity, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Opt Soc of Am), 2014; paper ATh2A.4.
  35. Valligatla S, Chiasera A, Varas S, Das P, Bhaktha B S, Łukowiak A, Scotognella F, Rao D N, Ramponi R, Righini G C, Ferrari M, Optical field enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of 1-D dielectric photonic crystal with ZnO defect, Opt Mater, 50(2015)229–233.
  36. Alee K S, Brundavanam M M, Bhaktha S N B, Chiappini A, Ferrari M, Rao D N, Effect of dye on the band gap of 3D polystyrene photonic crystals, Proc SPIE 7212, Optical Components and Materials VI, 72120R (6 February 2009); doi.org/10.1117/12.811001.
  37. Alee K S, Krishna M B M, Ashok B, Rao D N, Experimental verification of enhanced electromagnetic field intensities at the photonic stop band edge of 3D polystyrene photonic crystals using Z-Scan technique, Photonic Nanostruct, 10(2012)236–242.
  38. Alee K S, Sriram G, Rao D N, Spectral and morphological changes of 3D polystyrene photonic crystals with the incorporation of alcohols, Opt Mater, 34(2012)1077–1081.
  39. Guddala S, Alee K S, Rao D N, Fabrication of multifunctional SnO2 and SiO2-SnO2 inverse opal structures with prominent photonic band gap properties, Opt Mater Express, 3(2013)407–417.
  40. Shihab N K, Acharyya J N, Rasi U M, Gangineni R B, Prakash G V, Rao D N, Cavity enhancement in nonlinear absorption and photoluminescence of BaTiO3, Optik, 207(2020)163896; doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2019.163896.
  41. Shihab N K, Acharyya J N, Rasi U M, Gangineni R B, Lakshmi P A, Prakash G V, Rao D N, Nonlinear optical absorption switching behavior of BaTiO3 in asymmetric microcavity, Opt Mater, 101(2020)109777; doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2020.109777.
  42. List of researchers who directly/indirectly guided by Prof D N Rao { List is not extensive}: Dr. Nirmal Kumar Viswanthan, University of Hyderabad (Optical Beam Shaping); Dr. G. Vijay Prakash, IIT Delhi (Nano Photonics); Dr Ashok Udayagiri, University of Hyderabad (Quantum optics); Dr. S Venugopal Rao, ACRHEM, University of Hyderabad (Nonlinear Spectroscopy); Dr. Siva Prakasam, University of Pondicherry (diode lasers); Dr. Ravi Kanth, University of Pondicherry (Glass Spectroscopy); Dr Ramana Mukkamala, RCI, Hyderabad; Dr Palas Gangopadhyay (TPR student) (EFISHG); Dr P Prem Kiran, University of Hyderabad (Ultrafast Optics, Laser Induced Shock Waves); Dr G Manoj Kumar, ACRHEM, University of Hyderabad (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy); Dr N K M Naga Srinivas, University College London (Neuro Photonics); Dr. Shivakiran Bhaktha, IIT Kharagpur (Random Lasers); Dr Venkatram Nalla, Industry (Nonlinear Spectroscopy); Dr. K. Chaitanya, Satya Sai Institute (Laser Writing); Dr Sai Santosh, IIT Hyderabad (Solar cells and Spectroscopy); Dr B Maruthi Manoj, IIT Kharagpur (Singular optics); Dr Sadik Ali, SRM University (Photonic Crystals); Dr. M Bala Murali Krishna, IIT Jodhpur (THz Spectroscopy); Dr H Sekhar, Industry (Material Science).
Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 6, 2021, 849-862

Ultrafast nonlinear optical and spectroscopic studies at the University of Hyderabad, India
S Venugopal Rao and S Hamad
Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM) University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad- 500 046, Telangana, India
Dedicated to Professor D N Rao for his significant contributions and pioneering works in the
fields of spectroscopy, optics, nonlinear optics and photonics


This mini-review presents the results from our various efforts on the nonlinear optical (NLO) and ultrafast studies from the year 1997-2014 at the University of Hyderabad, India under the leadership of Prof Narayana Rao Desai. Our group was one of the first to work on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of novel organic materials such as porphyrins and phthalocyanines using nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond laser pulses. Further, a summary of the second order NLO studies performed along with femtosecond laser direct writing studies are summarized. Some of the important results accomplished during this period from our group were also highlighted. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Nonlinear Optics, Z-scan, DFWM, Porphyrins, Phthalocyanines, Femtosecond, Two-photon absorption, Three-photon absorption

https://doi.org/10.54955/AJP.30.6.2021.849-862


  1. Boyd R W, Nonlinear Optics, 4th Edn, (Academic Press), 2020.
  2. Gangopadhyay P, Sharma S, Rao A J, Rao D N, Cohen S, Agranat I, Radhakrishnan T P, Optical second harmonic generation in achiral bis (n-alkylamino) dicyanoquinodimethanes: Alkyl chain length as the design element, Chem Mater, 11(1999)466–472.
  3. Ravi M, Rao D N, Cohen S, Agranat I, Radhakrishnan T P, Push− pull quinonoid compounds: Enhanced powder SHG utilizing the effect of chiral centers on the dipole alignment, Chem Mater, 9(1997)830–837.
  4. Ravi M, Gangopadhyay P, Rao D N, Cohen S, Agranat I, Radhakrishnan T P, Dual influence of H-bonding on the solid-state second-harmonic generation of a chiral quinonoid compound, Chem Mater, 10(1998)2371–2377.
  5. Gangopadhyay P, Rao S V, Rao D N, Radhakrishnan T P, N-alkyl-p-nitroanilines: Impact of alkyl chain length on crystal structures and optical SHG, J Mater Chem, 9(1999)1699–1705.
  6. Patil P S, Dharmaprakash S M, Ramakrishna K, Fun H K, Kumar R S S, Rao D N, Second harmonic generation and crystal growth of new chalcone derivatives, J Cryst Growth, 303(2007)520–524.
  7. D’Silva E D, Podagatlapalli G K, Rao S V, Rao D N, Dharmaprakash S M, New, high efficiency nonlinear optical chalcone Co-crystal and structure-property relationship, Cryst Growth Des, 11(2011)5362–5369.
  8. Rao S V, Studies of Excited State Dynamics, Third Order Optical Nonlinearity and Nonlinear Absorption in C60, Porphyrins, and Phthalocyanines Using Incoherent Laser Spectroscopy, Ph D Thesis,University of Hyderabad, India, March 2000.
  9. Rao S V, Srinivas N K M N, Rao D N, Giribabu L, Maiya B G, Philip R, Kumar G R, Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan, Opt Commun, 182(2000)255–264.
  10. Srinivas N K M N, Rao S V, Rao, Rao D V G L N, Kimball B K, Nakashima M, DeCristofano B S, Rao D N, Wavelength dependent studies of nonlinear absorption in zinc meso-tetra(p-methoxyphenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin (Znmp TBP) using Z-scan technique, J Porphy Phth, 5(2001)549–554.
  11. Srinivas N K M N, Rao S V, Rao D N, Saturable and reverse saturable absorption of Rhodamine B in methanol and water, J Opt Soc Amer B: Opt Phys, 20(2003)2470–2479.
  12. Venkatram N, Rao D N, Giribabu L, Rao, S V, Nonlinear optical and optical limiting studies of alkoxy phthalocyanines in solutions studied at 532 nm with nanosecond pulse excitation, Appl Phys B: Lasers and Opt, 91(2008)149–156.
  13. Venkatram N, Rao D N, Giribabu L, Rao S V, Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of alkoxy phthalocyanines at 800 nm studied using Z-Scan technique, Chem Phys Lett, 464(2008)211–215.
  14. Rao S V, Venkatram N, Giribabu L, Rao D N, Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of alkyl-phthalocyanine nanoparticles investigated using Z-scan technique, J Appl Phys, 105(2009)art 053109; doi.org/10.1063/1.3079801.
  15. Kumar R S S, Rao S V, Giribabu L, Rao D N, Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of alkyl phthalocyanines investigated using degenerate four-wave mixing technique, Opt Mater, 31(2009)1042–1047.
  16. Rao S V, Srinivas N K M N, Rao D N, Nonlinear absorption and excited state dynamics in Rhodamine B studied using Z-scan and degenerate four wave mixing techniques, Chem Phys Lett, 361(2002)439–445.
  17. Rao D N, Blanco E, Rao S V, Aranda F J, Rao D V G L N, Tripathy S, Akkara J A, A Comparative Study of СбО, Pthalocyanine, and Porphyrin for Optical Limiting Over the Visible Region, J Sci Ind Res, 57(1998)664–667.
  18. Rao S V, Rao D N, Akkara J A, DeCristofano B S, Rao D V G L N, Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan, Chem Phys Lett, 297(1998)491–498.
  19. Srinivas N K M N, Investigation of NLO Materials of interest to Biophotonics and Optical Limiting through EFISHG and Z-Scan Techniques, Ph D Thesis, University of Hyderabad, India, 2004.
  20. Prem Kiran P, Optical Limiting and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Photo Responsive Materials: Tetratolylporphyrins, Pure and iron doped Bi12SiO20 crystals and Codoped Ag-Cu Metal Nanoclusters, Ph D Thesis, University of Hyderabad, India, 2004.
  21. Kumar R S S, Supercontinuum generation, surface four-wave mixing and multiphoton absorption in nonlinear optical transparent media studied with femtosecond laser pulses, Ph D Thesis, University of Hyderabad, India, 2009.
  22. Venkatram N, Study of Nonlinear Absorption Properties of II-VI Semiconductor (CdS, CdSe), Metal (Au) and Zinc (II)-Phthalocyanine Nanoparticles with Nanosecond and Femtosecond Laser Excitation, Ph D Thesis, University of Hyderabad, India, 2008.
  23. Sheik-Bahae M, Said A A, Wei T H, Hagan D J, Van Stryland E W, Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam, IEEE J Quantum Electron, 26(1990)760–769.
  24. Rao S V, Srinivas N K M N, Rao D N, Giribabu L, Maiya B G, Philip R, Kumar G R, Excited state dynamics in tetra tolyl porphyrins studied using degenerate four wave mixing with incoherent light and ps pulses, Opt Commun, 192(2001)123–133.
  25. Rao D N, Srinivas N K M N, Gangopadhyay P, Radhakrishnan T P, Internal cancellation of electric field induced second harmonic generation in solvent mixtures and solutions: An efficient protocol for the determination of molecular hyperpolarizability, J Phys Chem A, 108(2004)5213–5219.
  26. Rao D N, Rao S V, Aranda F J, Rao D V G L N, Nakashima M, Akkara J A, Ultrafast relaxation times of metalloporphyrins by time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing with incoherent light, J Opt Soc Amer B: Opt Phys, 14(1997)2710–2715.
  27. Rao S V, Giribabu L, Maiya B G, Rao D N, A novel observation in the measurement of ultrafast relaxation times using incoherent light, Curr Sci, 72 (1997) 957–960.
  28. Rao S V, Rao D N Excited state dynamics of C60 studied using incoherent light, Chem Phys Lett, 283(1998) 227–230.
  29. Rao S V, Narayana Rao D N, Excited state dynamics in phthalocyanines studied using degenerate four wave mixing with incoherent light, J Porphy Phth, 6(2002)233–237.
  30. Joseph W D R, Pradhan N R, Singh S, Rao D N, Electroabsorption spectroscopy: A versatile tool to measure optical nonlinearities, Curr Sci, 86(2004)1283–1287.
  31. Vishnubhatla K C, Optical spectroscopic characterization of rare earth activated conventional non conventional and nanostructured glasses for integrated optics, Ph D Thesis, University of Hyderabad, India, 2008.
  32. Deepak K L N, Laser Irradiation Effects in Polymers, Lithium Niobate Crystal and Applications in Photonics, Ph D Thesis, University of Hyderabad, India, 2011.
  33. Deepak K L N, Kuladeep R, Rao D N, Emission properties of femtosecond (fs) laser fabricated microstructures in Polystyrene (PS), Opt Commun, 284(2011)3070–3073.
  34. Deepak K L N, Kuladeep R, Venugopal Rao S, Rao D N, Luminescent microstructures in bulk and thin films of PMMA, PDMS, PVA, and PS fabricated using femtosecond direct writing technique, Chem Phys Lett, 503(2011)57–60.
  35. Kallepalli D L N, Desai N R, Soma V R, Fabrication and optical characterization of microstructures in poly(methylmethacrylate) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) using femtosecond pulses for photonic and microfluidic applications, Appl Opt, 49(2010)2475–2489.
  36. Deepak K L N, Rao S V, Rao D N, Effects of thermal treatment on femtosecond laser fabricated diffraction gratings in polystyrene, Appl Surf Sci, 257(2011)9299–9305.
  37. Deepak K L N, Kuladeep R, Rao S V, Rao D N, Studies on defect formation in femtosecond laser-irradiated PMMA and PDMS, Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, 167(2012)88–101.
  38. Vishnubhatla K C, Rao S V, Kumar R S S, Osellame R, Bhaktha S N B, Turrell S, Chiappini A, Chiasera A, Ferrari M, Mattarelli M, Montagna M, Ramponi R, Righini G C, Rao D N, Femtosecond laser direct writing of gratings and waveguides in high quantum efficiency erbium-doped Baccarat glass, J Phys D: Appl Phys, 42(2009) art. 205106; doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/42/20/205106.
  39. Narayana L K D, Rao S V, Rao D N , Femtosecond-laser direct writing in polymers and potential applications in microfluidics and memory devices, Opt Eng, 51(2012)073402; doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.51.7.073402.
  40. Vishnubhatla K C, Rao S V, Kumar R S S, Ferrari M, Rao D N, Optical studies of two dimensional gratings in fused silica, GE 124, and Foturan™ glasses fabricated using femtosecond laser pulses, Opt Commun, 282(2009) 4537–4542.
  41. Kiran P P, Srinivas N K M N, Reddy D R, Maiya B G, Dharmadhikari A, Sandhu A S, Kumar G R, Rao D N, Heavy atom effect on nonlinear absorption and optical limiting characteristics of 5,10,15,20-(tetratolyl) porphyrinato phosphorus (V) dichloride, Opt Commun, 202(2002)347–352.
  42. Kiran P P, Reddy D R, Maiya B G, Dharmadhikari A, Kumar G R, Rao D N, Enhanced optical limiting and nonlinear absorption properties of azoarene-appended phosphorus (V) tetratolylporphyrins, Appl Opt, 41(2002) 7631–7636.
  43. Rathi P, Ekta, Kumar S, Banerjee D, Rao S V, Sankar M, Unsymmetrical β-functionalized ‘push-pull’ porphyrins: Synthesis and photophysical, electrochemical and nonlinear optical properties, Dalton Trans, 49(10) (2020) 3198–3208.
  44. Kumar S, Acharyya J N, Banerjee D, Rao S V, Prakash G V, Sankar M, Strong Two-photon Absorption and Ultrafast Dynamics in Meso-Functionalized ‘Push-Pull’ Trans-A2BC Porphyrins, In Press, Dalton Trans, 50(2021) 6256–6272.
  45. Rao D N, Rao S V, Blanco E, Aranda F J, Rao D V G L N, Akkara J A, A comparative study of C60, phthalocyanine and a porphyrin for optical limiting over the visible region, J Sci Ind Res, 57(1998)664–667.
  46. Kumar R S S, Rao S V, Giribabu L, Rao D N, Femtosecond and nanosecond nonlinear optical properties of alkyl phthalocyanines studied using Z-scan, Chem Phys Lett, 447(2007)274–278.
  47. Rao S V, Kiran P P, Giribabu L, Ferrari M, Kurumurthy G, Krishna B M, Sekhar H, Rao D N, Anomalous nonlinear absorption behavior in an unsymmetrical phthalocyanine studied near 800 nm using femtosecond and picosecond pulses, Nonlinear Opt Quantum Opt, 40(2010)183–191.
  48. Rao S V, Femtosecond and continuous wave nonlinear optical properties of (H2)2SnPc, Sn(OH)2Pc, Sn(Cl)2Pc studied using Z-scan technique, in Nonlinear Frequency Generation and Conversion: Materials, Devices, and Applications VIII, (ed) Powers P E, Proc SPIE, 7197 (2009) 719715-1 to 719715-10.
  49. Rao D V G L N, Aranda F J, Rao D N, Chen Z, Akkara J A, Kaplan D L, Nakashima M, All-optical logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin films, Opt Commun, 127(1996)193–199.
  50. Aranda F J, Garimella R, McCarthy N F, Rao D N, Rao D V G L N, Chen Z, Akkara J A, Kaplan D L, Roach J F, All-optical light modulation in bacteriorhodopsin films, Appl Phys Lett, 67(1995)599–601.
  51. Rao D V G L N, Aranda F J, Rao D N, Chen Z, Akkara J A, Nakashima M, All-optical logical gates with bacteriorhodopsin films, Proc SPIE, 2897(1996)182–182.
  52. Kiran P P, Bhaktha B N S, Rao D N, De G, Nonlinear optical properties and surface-plasmon enhanced optical limiting in Ag–Cu nanoclusters co-doped in SiO2 Sol-Gel films, J Appl Phys, 96(2004)6717–6723.
  53. Sathyavathi R, Krishna M B, Rao S V, Saritha R, Rao D N, Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coriandrum sativum leaf extract and their application in nonlinear optics, Adv Sci Lett, 3(2010)138–143.
  54. Sathyavathi R, Krishna M B M, Rao D N. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and its application to optical limiting, J Nanosci Nanotech, 11(2011)2031–2035.
  55. Kumar R S S, Harsha S S, Rao D N, Broadband supercontinuum generation in a single potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal achieved in tandem with sum frequency generation, Appl Phys B, 86(2007)615–621.
  56. Srinivas N K M N, Harsha S S, Rao D N, Femtosecond supercontinuum generation in a quadratic nonlinear medium (KDP), Opt Express, 13(2005)3224–3229.
  57. Kumar R S S, Deepak K L N, Rao D N, Control of the polarization properties of the supercontinuum generation in a noncentrosymmetric crystal, Opt Lett, 33(2008)1198–1200.
  58. Porel S, Venkatram N, Rao D N, Radhakrishnan T P, Optical power limiting in the femtosecond regime by silver nanoparticle-embedded polymer film, J Appl Phys, 102(2007)03310; doi.org/10.1063/1.2764239.
  59. Porel S, Venkatram N, Rao D N, Radhakrishnan T P, In situ synthesis of metal nanoparticles in polymer matrix and their optical limiting applications, J Nanosci and Nanotech, 7(2007)1887–1892.
  60. Kiran P P, Rao S V, Ferrari M, Krishna B M, Sekhar H, Alee S, Rao D N, Enhanced optical limiting performance through nonlinear scattering in Nanoparticles of CdS, co-doped Ag-Cu, and BSO, Nonlinear Opt Quantum Opt, 40(2010)223–234.
  61. Venkatram N, Kumar R S S, Rao D N, Nonlinear absorption and scattering properties of cadmium sulphide nanocrystals with its application as a potential optical limiter, J Appl Phys, 100(2006) art. no. 074309; doi.org/10.1063/1.2354417.
  62. Rao D N, Yelleswarapu C S, Kothapalli S -R, Rao D V G L N, Kimball B R, Self-diffraction in bacteriorhodopsin films for low power optical limiting, Opt Express, 11(2003)2848–2853.
  63. Venkatram N, Rao D N,Akundi M A, Nonlinear absorption, scattering and optical limiting studies of CdS nanoparticles, Opt Express, 13(2005)867–872.
  64. Raavi S S K, Yin J, Grancini G, Soci C, Rao S V, Lanzani G, Giribabu L, Femtosecond to Microsecond Dynamics of Soret-Band Excited Corroles, J Phys Chem C, 119(2015)28691−28700.
  65. Katturi N K, Reddy G, Biswas C, Raavi S S K, Giribabu L, Rao V S, Ultrafast Nonlinear Optical Properties and Excited-State Dynamics of Soret-Band Excited D-π-D Porphyrins, Opt Mater, 107(2020)110041; doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2020.110041.
  66. Katturi N K, Balahoju S A, Ramya A R, Biswas C, Raavi S S K, Giribabu L, Soma V R, Ultrafast Photophysical and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Novel Free Base and Axially Substituted Phosphorus (V) Corroles, J Mol Liq, 311(2020)113308; doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2020.113308 .
  67. Biswas C, Katturi N K, Duvva N, Giribabu L, Rao S V, Raavi S S K, Multistep Electron Injection Dynamics and Optical Nonlinearity Investigations of π-Extended Thioalkyl-Substituted Tetrathiafulvalene Sensitizers, J Phys Chem C, 124(2020)24039−24051.
  68. Krishnakanth K N, Seth S, Samanta A, Rao S V, Broadband Femtosecond Nonlinear Optical Properties of CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals, Opt Lett, 43(2018)603–606.
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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30, No 6 (2021) 863-870

Higher order photonic stop-bands and random lasing in microflower decorated polystyrene opals
N N Subhashree Ojha1, Anirban Sarkar1,2, and B N Shivakiran Bhaktha1
1Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721 302, India
2Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,
University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom
Dedicated to Professor D N Rao for his significant contributions and pioneering works in the
fields of spectroscopy, optics, nonlinear optics and photonics


Mono-sized polystyrene nanoparticles of different diameters were synthesized using emulsion polymerization process. Consequently, highly ordered 3-D photonic crystals (opals) of polystyrene nanoparticles were fabricated by evaporation assisted sedimentation deposition technique. The opal structures were found to exhibit very intense higher order photonic stop-bands (PSBs) along with the fundamental PSB. Numerically computed band diagram of polystyrene opal endorses the higher order energy bands in the experimental reflection spectra and the existence of Van Hove singularity. Also, on coating the opal structure with a 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) thin film (DCM-PVA) active layer, random lasing (RL) was observed. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: 3-D photonic crystal, Polystyrene microflower, Higher order photonic stop-bands, Van Hove singularity, Random laser

https://doi.org/10.54955/AJP.30.6.2021.863-870


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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 6, 2021, 871-888

Advances in applications of LIBS in India: A Review
Akash Kumar Tarai, Rajendhar Junjuri and Manoj Kumar Gundawar
Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Prof C R Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad, Telangana-500 046, India
Dedicated to Professor D N Rao for his significant contributions and pioneering works in the
fields of spectroscopy, optics, nonlinear optics and photonics


In this review, a comprehensive overview of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) research work carried out by different groups in India is presented. In the last two decades, it has been extensively explored for a wide range of applications, including estimation of elemental concentration and the classification of materials. LIBS is commonly used for variety of purposes, including environmental monitoring, industrial and nuclear applications, geological and archaeological surveys, defence applications, and biological applications, etc. In these milieu, various analytical methodologies and machine learning algorithms were used for both qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing LIBS data. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Laser-induced plasma (LIP), Pulsed laser.

https://doi.org/10.54955/AJP.30.6.2021.871-888


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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 6, 2021, 889-898

Coherent plasmonic absorption in the femtosecond regime
Venkatram Nalla1,*, Xu Fang2, João Valente2, Handong Sun1, and Nikolay I Zheludev1, 2
1Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, The Photonic Institute,
School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
2Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials,
University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, UK
Dedicated to Professor D N Rao for his significant contributions and pioneering works in the
fields of spectroscopy, optics, nonlinear optics and photonics


Dissipation of electromagnetic energy through absorption is a fundamental process that underpins phenomena ranging from photovoltaics to photography, analytical spectroscopy, photosynthesis, and human vision. Absorption is also a dynamic process that depends on the duration of the optical illumination. Here, we report on the resonant plasmonic absorption of a nanostructured metamaterial and the non-resonant absorption of an unstructured gold film at different optical pulse durations. By examining the absorption in travelling and standing waves, we observe a plasmonic relaxation time of 11 fs as the characteristic transition time. The metamaterial acts as a beam-splitter with low absorption for shorter pulses, while as a good absorber for longer pulses. The transient nature of the absorption puts a frequency limit of ~90 THz on the bandwidth of coherently-controlled, all-optical switching devices, which is still a thousand times faster than other leading switching technologies. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Coherent Plasmonic Absorption, Sub-10fs laser pulses.

https://doi.org/10.54955/AJP.30.6.2021.889-898


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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 6, 2021, 899-906

Transverse optical current in off-axis vortex beams
Satyajit Maji and Maruthi M Brundavanam
Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721 302, India
Dedicated to Professor D N Rao for his significant contributions and pioneering works in the
fields of spectroscopy, optics, nonlinear optics and photonics


Optical beams nesting single or more off-axial distribution of point vortices is considered. The effective topological charge carried out by the beam is explored when the beam is nesting a fractional order vortex phase, beam containing an arbitrary distribution of point vortices as well as when two or more integer order vortex fields are superposed. The orbital angular momentum (OAM) carried out by this beam is generally a fractional number when average OAM per photon is considered. Depending on the distribution of the point vortices the beam may carry a net transverse linear momentum which dictates the nature of the OAM carried out by the beams. When more than one off-axis vortex is present within the beam, the transverse Poynting vector also exhibits saddle points which reveal intricate topological structure of such optical vortex beams. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Optical vortex beams, Off-axis vortex beams, Optical current, Fractional vortex beams

https://doi.org/10.54955/AJP.30.6.2021.899-906


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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 6, 2021, 907-916

Multi-photon absorption properties of semiconducting nanomaterials
Venkatram Nalla
1Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, The Photonic Institute,
School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Dedicated to Professor D N Rao for his significant contributions and pioneering works in the
fields of spectroscopy, optics, nonlinear optics and photonics


Multiphoton absorption (MPA) is a nonlinear optical process that involves simultaneous absorption of two or more photons by a material to promote its ground state to an excited state. Multiphoton absorption promises many important applications such as multi-dimensional fluorescence imaging, three dimensional (3D) data storage. Physical and chemical properties of nanometer sized semiconductor materials change drastically due to quantum size effect. Combination of both multiphoton absorption and quantum effects will be an interesting study. Multiphoton absorption of semiconducting nanomaterials is an exciting phenomenon which promotes many important applications. This paper reviews multi-photon absorption properties of different kinds of semiconducting nanomaterials starting from chalcogenide-based nanomaterials to perovskites nanomaterials and their applications in various fields. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Multi-photon absorption, Nanomaterials, Semiconducting nanomaterials.

https://doi.org/10.54955/AJP.30.6.2021.907-916


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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 6, 2021, 917-931

Undoped and iron doped Bi12SiO20 crystals as optical limiters
P Prem Kiran
School of Physics, University of Hyderabad,
Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad – 500 046, Telangana State, India.
Dedicated to Professor D N Rao for his significant contributions and pioneering works in the
fields of spectroscopy, optics, nonlinear optics and photonics


This paper reviews the potential of photorefractive single crystals for optical limiting applications and highlights the optical limiting characteristics of undoped and iron doped Bi12SiO20 (BSO), a photorefractive single crystal belonging to Sillenite family. The contribution of two-photon absorption from two channels: first from valence band to conduction band and the other from an extrinsic silicon-vacancy to conduction band assisted by charge carrier absorption from the trap states of BSO is presented. These processes lead to highly effective nonlinear absorption across the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The specific role of iron doping in enhancing the effective nonlinear absorption by charge carriers as well as intraband absorption for ns laser pulses at three different excitation wavelengths of 532, 600 and 683 nm is discussed. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Bi12SiO20 single crystal, Optical limiter, Nonlinear absorption, effective two-photon absorption, Trap level assisted Charge carrier absorption.

https://doi.org/10.54955/AJP.30.6.2021.917-931


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Asian Journal of Physics Vol. 30 No 6, 2021, 933-945

Ultrafast electron injection kinetics and effect of plasmonic silver nanoparticle at organic dye-TiO2 interface
Chinmoy Biswas1, Md Soif Ahmed1 and Sai Santosh Kumar Raavi1,2*
1Ultrafast Photo-physics and Photonics Laboratory, Department of Physics,
Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Kandi-502 285, Telangana, India
2Department of Climate Change, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Kandi-502 285, Telangana, India
Dedicated to Professor D N Rao for his significant contributions and pioneering works in the
fields of spectroscopy, optics, nonlinear optics and photonics


In this mini review, we present the investigations on the electron injection kinetics of two thioalkyl substituted tetrathiafulvalene dye molecules in mesoporous TiO2 layers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Steady-state absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy techniques were employed to apprehend the excited state dynamics of the molecules as thin-film deposited on quartz and mesoporous TiO2 layers. Time-resolved PL measurements at the “dye-TiO2” interface provided initial evidence of electron injection by fast PL quenching decay dynamics for both the molecules. Detailed target analysis of the femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) data of the “dye-TiO2” sample showed a multi-step ultrafast electron injection for both molecules where the fastest injection components were ≈374 fs and ≈314 fs for G1 and G3 molecules, respectively. Furthermore, the introduction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at the dye-TiO2 interface resulted in surface plasmon resonance induced ultrafast and enhanced electron-injection and reduced charge-recombination dynamics. We observed improved light trapping and hot electron injection from Ag NPs to TiO2. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Plasmons, dye-sensitized solar cells, electron injection dynamics, ultrafast spectroscopy, silver nanoparticles.

https://doi.org/10.54955/AJP.30.6.2021.933-945


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