An International Peer Reviewed Research Journal
Frequency : Monthly,
ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Editor-In-Chief (Hon.) :
Dr. V.K. Rastogi
e-mail:[email protected]
[email protected]

 AJP ISSN : 0971 – 3093
Vol 31, Nos 3-6, March-June, 2022

Journal of Physics

Vol 31, Nos 3-6, March-June, 2022

A Special Issue


dedicated to Eminent Scientist, Scholar and Teacher
Professor Bishnu P Pal
Professor of Physics and Dean of Engg at Mahindra University École
Centrale School of Engineering Hyderabad, India and former Professor of Physics at IIT Delhi, India
Guest Edited By : Partha Roy Chaudhuri

Anita Publications
FF-43, 1st Floor, Mangal Bazar, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi-110 092, India

About Prof Bishnu Pal

Professor Bishnu Pal was born on Dec 3rd 1948 in Shillong India and is currently Professor of Physics and Dean of Engineering at Mahindra University’s École Centrale School of Engineering (earlier known as Mahindra École Centrale or MEC in short) in Hyderabad India. Before joining MEC established in 2014 in collaboration with École Centrale Paris (now CentraleSuperlec) of France, he was a Professor of Physics for over 24 years (and as a Physics faculty member for about 34 years) at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, where he served as the Chairperson of the Physics Department (September 2008-December 2011) and also of the Computer Services Center (September 2002-August 2005). He was deeply involved in introducing and developing the highly sought-after interdisciplinary M. Tech. program on Optoelectronics and Optical Communication in 1980 at IIT Delhi. Two of his research papers – one (co-authored with Arun Kumar and Ajoy Ghatak) published in 1980 in Electronics Letters on effect of an axial refractive index dip in a single-mode fiber on the estimation of zero dispersion wavelength in it and another (co-authored with A. Barh, G P Agrawal, B M A Rahman, and R K Varshney) on the generation of THz in a specialty optical fiber in published in 2015 in Optics Letters were reprinted in the IEE book Progress in Optical Communication Vol. II ed by P J B Clarricoats (1983), and in the e-book Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol 4 ed by Jelena Purenovic, B P International London (2021), respectively. Furthermore, two of his authored/co-authored chapters from his edited book Guided Wave Optical Components and Devices – Basics, Technology and Applications (Academic Press, 2006) were reprinted in the book The Optical Communications reference (eds DeCusatis and Kaminow, Elsevier, 2010). He has edited 4 books published by Elsevier/Academic Press, John Wiley/New Age Publishers, Intech, and Viva publishers. Open access e-book Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics (2010) edited by him and published by Intech London has been downloaded over 140,000 times to date. He has also contributed over 15 chapters – all by invitation in various books. Prof Pal has extensively contributed to sponsored research and industrial consultancy and especially several international collaborative research projects that involved UK, USA, Russia, France, Malaysia and Hong Kong. His recent areas of research have been microstructured specialty fibers for mid-IR and THz photonics, silicon photonics, and meta materials. His research career broadly covered design of application-specific specialty optical fibers like dispersion tailored fibers with low sensitivity to nonlinear optical effects, fibers for inherently gain flattened fiber amplifiers, large mode area fibers and fibers for DWDM transmission, all-fiber components and devices with focus on design, technology, and characterization including side-polished fiber half-coupler-based gain flattening filters for optical fiber amplifiers, fused fiber couplers, and wavelength interleavers as branching components for optical communication networks, designs of 1D-microstructured optical fibers like Bragg fibers for supercontinuum light, optical fiber sensors, guided wave components and sensors based on silicon photonics, and Anderson type localization of light in disordered optical waveguide lattices.

Prof Pal has received several awards and honors in course of his professional and student career. Some of these were National Science Talent Search scholar (NCERT, India 1965-1975), elected Fellow of OSA the Optical Society (USA), SPIE The International Society for Optics and Photonics (USA), Distinguished Fellow of OSI (India) and Fellow of IETE (India), Distinguished Honorary Foreign Member of Royal Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters (DKNVS, Norway) in 2007, Senior Member of IEEE (USA), Distinguished Lecturer of IEEE Photonics Society (2005-2006), Alexander von Humboldt Fellow (1982-83, Germany), Fulbright Scholar at NIST Boulder CO (1991, USA), Royal Norwegian CSIR (NTNF, Oslo) International PDF (1975-77) and Visiting Professor (May-July 1988) at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim Norway, 2016 Esther Hoffman Beller Medal of OSA The Optical Society (Centenary Year of OSA, USA), 2021 SPIE Maria J. Yzuel Educator Award, Invited faculty at the ICO Winter School in Optics held at ICTP Trieste (Italy) in 1998, 2017 Prof Selvarajan award for outstanding contributions to Photonics education and research by IEEE Photonics Society India chapter on 1st International Day of Light, 2006 Homi Bhabha award in Applied Physics of UGC (India), 2013 Om Prakash Bhasin award in Electronics and Information Technology (India), 2014 Khosla Research Award of IIT Roorkee (India) for lifetime contributions in research, 2010 Prof Y T Thathachari award for excellence in Physical Sciences (India) of Bhramara Trust (Mysore), CEOT award of IETE (India, 2010) for contributions to Optoelectronics Devices, Co-recipient of the first Fiber Optics Person of the Year award (1997) established by Lucent Technology India Branch and Voice & Data magazine (India), and the highest 2010 Optics award of Optical Society of India for lifetime achievements. He was President of OSI (India, 2012-2015), Member of the Board of Directors of OSA The Optical Society (Washington, USA, 2009-2011), founding Editorial Advisory Board member of Int. J. Optoelectron. (Taylor & Francis) and is currently a Member of the Editorial Advisory Boards of the journals: IEEE Photonics J (as Associate Editor), J. Opt. Comm. (Germany), J. Elect. Engg. & Tech. (Korea), Optoelectron. Letts. (Springer), J. Korean Opt. Soc. (Korea), Photonic Sensors (Springer), Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications (Taylor & Francis) and Kiran of the Indian Laser Society.

Prof Pal has worked as a guest scientist at ELAB at the then NTH Trondheim (now Norwegian University of Science and Technology) in Norway, CNRS laboratory LPMC at University of Nice in France as Senior Foreign Scientist of CNRS for various periods, NIST Boulder Colorado in USA as a Fulbright Scholar, Heriot Watt University Edinburgh in UK as an Erasmus Mundus Scholar in Photonics, City U Hong Kong and University of Malay at Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia as Visiting Professor for various periods, and at Fraunhofer Institute fur Physikalische Messtechnik in Germany as an AvH Fellow. He has been on the Steering Committee/Technical Program Committee of several global flagship conferences/workshops like OFC (USA), Photonics West (SPIE USA), biennial Fiber Optics and Optical Communication conference held in India, Specialty optical fiber workshop and Optical Fiber Sensor conference series, etc. and served as a member of the Jury for the Galileo Galilei Award of ICO and Sang Soo Lee Award of OSA-OSK Selection Committees. He edited a special issue of Asian J Phys dedicated to Prof A Ghatak and recently co-edited a special issue of AJP with Prof R S Sirohi dedicated to Padma Shree Prof M S Sodha. These special issues of AJP were very well received by the scientific community.

About Guest Editor

Partha Roy Chaudhuri is Professor of Physics at Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, working in the area of Fiber and Integrated Optics and Experimental Photonics. In 2000, he did his Ph D from the Fiber Optics Group of Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. During the Ph D research, his major contribution had been technology development of a host of fused fiber coupler-based all-fiber branching components required in an optical communication network. It included process simulation of the tapered fiber fusion process in the form of a rigorous theoretical model, complete design of a menu-driven computer-controlled automated fabrication rig, necessary electronics as well as electromechanical hardware and associated software for fabricating these components with state-of-the-art specifications. He then pursued postdoctoral research at the Kyoto Institute of Technology, Japan, as a Japanese Government Fellow, where he pursued research on various optical waveguides, MMI couplers and components. During this postdoctoral research, he came up with a new algorithm related to mode-solving of any arbitrary refractive index profile waveguide based on a Finite Difference Mode Convergence recipe, which he and his graduate students extensively used in his research on fiber optics and photonic crystal waveguides.

In 2002, he joined the Institute for Communications Research at National University of Singapore, Singapore and pursued experimental research with photonic crystal fibers and components. In particular, he spearheaded projects on designing photonic crystal waveguides/fibers with tailored high-birefringence and dispersion properties and successfully realized some of these novel designed PCFs through collaboration with Beijing Glass Research Institute in China. His expertise on various efficient design algorithms that rely on Finite Difference Method (FDM), Boundary Element Method (BEM), and Perturbed Field Correction Analysis have greatly facilitated modeling of fabricated waveguides and components thereof to successfully interpret various experimental results. Most of these works were reported in relevant research journals.

In 2004, he joined the Faculty of Physics at IIT Kharagpur where he is currently a Professor of Physics actively involved in teaching and research. During 2004-2012, as incharge of the Optical Division of the Central Research Facility which housed a fiber drawing facility, he executed several R&D projects by drawing custom-designed specialty optical Fibers. He has successfully carried out (as PI and Co-PI) several Sponsored Research projects funded by Government Agencies namely, DST, DRDO, BRNS, MHRD with industry (IMPRINT) that led to deleverables, development of technical Know-hows, copyrights and Patent applications. He is involved with collaboration research with institues in India and abroad. To date he has supervised (including ongoing Ph D theses) 12 Ph D theses and more than 35 MTech. and M Sc dissertations. He is an author/coauthor of more than ninety research papers and contributed invited chapters in six books. His NPTEL course on Modern Optics has received wide appreciation of researchers from India and abroad. He is Life Fellow of Opt Soc of India (OSI), Institute of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers (IETE) and Life Member of Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA), Member of OSA, the Optical Society of America, KIT International Exchange Club. His current research interests are in the area of microstructured optical fibers/photonic crystal waveguides and devices for passive, and active/ and (active and nonlinear) nonlinear applications and development of fiber optic sensors for detection of weak elelctric and magnetic fields. Recently he has joined Asian J Phys as one of the Editors.

Asian Journal of Physics
(A Publication Not for Profit)
Volume 31, Nos 3-6 (2022)


Ten Beautiful Equations
Ajoy Ghataki

Optical wave propagation in graded-index waveguides
Govind P Agrawal401

Review on forward transmission based distributed optical fiber vibration sensors
Yaxi Yan, Hua Zheng and Chao Lu419

Random Fiber Lasers: A guided wave optical device for multidisciplinary photonic applications
Anderson S L Gomes437

Novel design and evaluation of a fast response luminescence-based fiber-optic pH and O2 sensors
J Werner, M Belz, K-F Klein, T Sun and K T V Grattan449

Far-detuned parametric sidebands via multiple intermodal four-wave mixing in communication fiber
Sudip K Chatterjee and R Vijaya465

Control of selective two-photon fluorescence suppression by one-color pulse-pair excitation
Debjit Roy, Arijit Kumar De and Debabrata Goswami475

Parametrically encircled higher-order exceptional points and successive state-switching in an all-lossy optical microcavity
Dinesh Beniwal, Arnab Laha and Somnath Ghosh 483

On the polarization-insensitive UWB metamaterial absorber comprising ZrN annular rings
E M Sheta and P K Choudhury495

Preserved polarization vortices in partially coherent vector vortex beams
Saba N Khan, Stuti Joshi and P Senthilkumaran505

Simulation and analysis of light scattering from particulate matter: A review
Kalpak Gupta and M R Shenoy 515

Thulium fiber laser for high-end surgical device
Ranjan Sen, Debasis Pal and Atasi Pal531

Estimation of the Brillouin scattering threshold in few mode fibers
M Santagiustina and I Abidi 539

Intrinsically gain-flattened Erbium-doped fiber amplifier for metro networks
Kamna Pande 545

Secure image authentication algorithm in fractional Hartley domain
Phool Singh, Sachin and Kehar Singh551

Detection of fluoride ion contamination and its sensitivity enhancement by cascading single-fiber MZI in fiber loop mirror configuration
N N Subhashree Ojha and Naveen Kumar567

A brief review of free-space quantum key distribution experiments towards satellite QKD
S Mujumdar, V Bhat, and R Chatterjee577

Optical sensing in complex systems
J L Santos, O Frazão and P A S Jorge593

Theoretical analysis of bistable optogenetic switching of neurons
Gur Pyari, Himanshu Bansal and Sukhdev Roy609

Cantilever based dual axis FBG accelerometer for seismic applications
Umesh Kumar Tiwari and Ravindra Kumar Sinha617

Fano resonance-based terahertz nanoscale-sensing in polarization sensitive metasurfaces
Subhajit Karmakar and Ravendra K Varshney621

Ultrashort femtosecond pulse laser for directed energy system applications: An analysis
S Veerabuthiran and Jagannath Nayak635

In-house fabrication and detailed analysis of fiber optic long period grating using electric arc discharge method
Koustav Dey, Kanchan Ghosh, Partha Pratim Das, R Ranjan and Sourabh RoyA1

Nonlinear pulse evolution through a sub-wavelength diameter silica-based fiber to detect the concentration variation of external gaseous medium
Binoy Krishna Ghosh, Dipankar Ghosh and Mousumi BasuA7

Dynamic speckle imaging based on dynamic mode decomposition
Raghunandan Kalibhat, Rishikesh Kulkarni and Parama PalA15

Design, experimental demonstration and modeling fiber ring resonator device with fiber cantilever-deflection probe for sensing surrounding electric field
Isha Sharma and Partha Roy Chaudhuri A27